Synergistic effect of polyphenols from skind and seed from grape inhibit platlet aggregation
Polyphenols composed of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. Polyphenols are generally divided into hydrolyzable tannins (gallic acid esters of glucose and other sugars) and phenylpropanoids, such as lignins, flavonoids, and condensed tannins. (see chemical formulas at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphenolics) Reed and colleagues 2002 found that combining extracts of grape seed and grape skin, rich in grape polyphenolics, individually shown to inhibit platelet aggregation , might enhance their individual antiplatelet effects. Feeding the extracts individually did not affect platelet aggregation, whereas feeding them in combination in combination as found in in red wine, grape juice exhibit a greater antiplatelet effect than when present individually.
Anticancer and urinary antibacterial properties of cranberry fruit  Catherine C. Neto reviewed the existing research on the anticancer properties of fruit of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). The author found that polyphenolic extracts rich in proanthocyanidins inhibit the growth and proliferation of breast, colon, prostate, lung, and other tumors, as do flavonols, proanthocyanidin oligomers, and triterpenoids isolated from the fruit. The unique combination of phytochemicals found in cranberry fruit may produce synergistic health benefits. The proanthocyanidins of cranberry also prevent urinary tract infections, inhibiting the adhesion of Escherichia coli bacteria. Also inhibition of the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucus was noted, reducing the risk of gastric cancer.
Grape seed procianidins reduces liver cancer risk  Quesada and colleagues 2007 found that procianidins inhibit the metallothionein gene expression in the liver by 70 per cent. Inhibition of the metalothionein genes expression was found dose dependent to grape seed procyanidins extract used in the study. The authors stress that metallothione in genes are direct targets of procyanidins action, both in vivo and in vitro, in hepatic cells. The authors elucidate the mechanisms how procyanidin achieves the beneficial effects.
Metallothionein plays an important role in transcription factor regulation. Increased expression of metallothioneins were found in some cancers of the breast, colon, kidney, liver, lung, nasopharynx, ovary, prostate, mouth, salivary gland, testes, thyroid and urinary bladder. Lower levels of metallothioneins were found in hepatocellular carcinoma and liver adenocarcinoma.
Grape seed extracts protect from cardiovascular diseases Woodward and colleagues 2004 stress that the French have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease than Americans. Researchers say this is an effect of grape polyphenolic of red wine consumed by French. The authors, however do not recommend red wine, neither red grape juice, because of the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effect of alcohol in wine and the high sugar content of the juice which might harm diabetic or promote obesity. The authors recommend therefore polyphenolic extracts of grapes as an alternative to wine or purple grape juice.
Grape seed extract have anti ageing effect and are potent antioxidants  John Shi and colleagues 2003 point out that grape seeds contain 5-8 per cent of polyphenols, proanthocyanidins including flavonoids, such as gallic acid, the monomeric flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin 3-0-gallate, and procyanidin dimers, trimers, and more highly polymerized procyanidins. The antioxidant effect of Proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin, and some dimers and trimers.
Seeds and marcs from the mao plant are a good source of proanthocyanidins  Puangpronpitag and colleagues 2016 analysed the seeds and marcs of Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. or mao which, a waste product of the production of juice and wine in Thailand. The authors looked on the polyphenolic content and their radical scavenging activities of the polyphenols and proanthocyanidins. The researchers found that the protective effect of seeds and marcs of mao on lipid peroxidation is as strong as grape seed proanthocyanidin extract, and stress that mao waste products may be a good source of polyphenolics.
Marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract are strong antioxidants El-Ashmawy and colleagues 2007 studied the antioxidant effect of Marjoram volatile oil (Origanum majorana L., Lamiaceae) and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae), when simultaneously administratedwith ethanol. They found that the ethanol toxicity induced significant alterations in the histological structures of the testis, liver and brain, an increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of glutathione in the testis, liver and brain. The co-administration of marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract reduced significantly the effects of ethanol toxicity on male fertility, liver and brain tissues. The authors concluded that the extracts of both plants are indicated to control oxidative damages.
Proanthocyanidins of grape seed prevent skin cancer  Meeran and Kativar report that dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice. The authors stress that grape seed proanthocyanidins possess chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro. They call for more studies to verify the chemotherapeutic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins in skin cancers.
Polyphenols of red grape skin and grape seed extracts prevent cardiovascular diseases  Hanne Frederiksen report that polyphenols in red grape skin and seed extract had positive effect on the development of atherosclerosis. In their study the authors found that grape skin and seed extract had no significant effects in females rabbits but was associated with transient less hypercholesterolemic response to semisynthetic diet. The development of aortic atherosclerosis in males was retarded.
Non-nutrient dietary constituents may present useful bioactive effects  Rosemary Carpenter and colleagues 2006 determined the concentration of compound that inhibited cell growth by 50% (IC50) of a range of phytochemicals and plant extracts and to investigate their antioxidant and genoprotective effects. The authors found that resveratrol presented the highest IC50 value of 13.7 µg/mL, and Echinacea the lowest at 9,400 µg/mL. Oxidative stress was strongly reduced by olive leaf extract and bearberry, grapeseed polyphenols and bearberry strongly protected against H2O2- and DNA damage. The authors concluded that non-nutrient dietary constituents may present important bioactive effects. Extracts of bearberry, grapeseed polyphenols, and olive leaf extract, protect against oxidative stress.