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29.05.2011: Soil metagenome 
The composition of soil microbiological population is complex. Metagenomics, the study of the entire genome of soil biota, provide a tool to discover new species, genes or novel molecules that are relevant for biotechnology and agricultural applications.
Assessing the microbiological population of soil and sediments encounters difficulties as most of the microorganisms in nature are uncultivable. Soil metagenome are suggested to study the genetic resources from terrestrial environments. Rajendhran and Gunasekaran 2008 stress that methods are being developed for a direct isolation of environmental DNAs which are cloneable and can be used in genomic DNA libraries with subsequent high-throughput sequencing or library screening. 
Metagenomics of disease-suppressive soils 
van Elsas et al. 2008 describe molecular tools to assess the collective soil metagenome as an alternative to cultivation. The authors aim to explore genes of biotechnological interest, such as the metagenome of disease-suppressive soils with antibiotic biosynthetic clusters. The author highlights the help of the disease-suppressive soils project METACONTROL to handle the high amount of data of soil metagenome.
Reigstad at al 2011 point out that metagenomics the metabolisms from rather uninvestigated organisms such as the ammonia-oxidizing archaea. For that methods were used to isolate high-molecular weight (hmw) DNA from soil and hot spring samples and mud, produce large-insert metagenomic libraries, analyse the resulting genomic fragments, and screen the libraries for genes of interest. 
Crop plants are more resistant to diseases growing on certain soils compared to other soils. This may be linked to exceptional ecosystems where the community of microbes inhibits root pathogens, such as certain moulds.
Mendes and colleagues 2011 identified more than 33,000 bacterial and archaeal species and genes which are linked to inhibition of pathogens using PhyloChip-based metagenomics, together with culture-dependent functional analyses. The authors report that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, and nonribosomal peptide synthetases of γ-Proteobacteria were linked to disease suppressionwere shown to have disease-suppressive activity governed by. 
High molecular weight genomic DNA extraction 
Lee and Hallam present a protocol for extracting high molecular weight, microbial community genomic DNA from soils and sediments suitable for constructing large insert environmental genomic libraries..This protocol uses mechanical grinding and beta-mercaptoethanol for cell lysis.
Chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol is used to isolate the genomic DNA, together with guanidine isothiocyanate and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as buffer. To reduce impurities such as proteins and humic acids, the isolated genomic DNA can be further purified using cesium chloride (CsCl). The whole process takes two and a half days, therefore shearing, severe vortexing and harsh pipetting should be avoided in order to prevent damage of the DNA.
 Mocali S, Benedetti A. Exploring research frontiers in microbiology: the challenge of metagenomics in soil microbiology. Res Microbiol. 2010 Jul-Aug;161(6):497-505.
 Rajendhran J, Gunasekaran P. Strategies for accessing soil metagenome for desired applications. Biotechnol Adv. 2008 Nov-Dec;26(6):576-90.
 van Elsas JD, Costa R, Jansson J, Sjöling S, Bailey M, Nalin R, Vogel TM, van Overbeek L: The metagenomics of disease-suppressive soils - experiences from the METACONTROL project. Trends Biotechnol. 2008 Nov;26(11):591-601.
 Reigstad LJ, Bartossek R, Schleper C: Preparation of high-molecular weight DNA and metagenomic libraries from soils and hot springs. Methods Enzymol. 2011;496:319-44.
 Mendes R, Kruijt M, de Bruijn I, Dekkers E, van der Voort M, Schneider JH, Piceno YM, Desantis TZ, Andersen GL, Bakker PA, Raaijmakers JM: Deciphering the Rhizosphere Microbiome for Disease-Suppressive Bacteria. Science. 2011 May 5.
 Lee S, Hallam SJ: Extraction of high molecular weight genomic DNA from soils and sediments.J Vis Exp. 2009 Nov 10;(33). pii: 1569. doi: 10.3791/1569.
26.05.2011: Cucumber imported from Spain carrying the EHEC bacterium may be implicated in the actual outbreak in Germany and Denmark. 
The EHEC infection outbreak in Germany has now spread to Denmark. Cucumber from Spain were found carrying the pathogen bacteria at an outlet in Hamburg. The Institute for Hygenics at the Münster University determined the dangerous bacteria of the German outbreak of the EHEC infections. It is of the Type "Husec 41" sequencing T678 which is resistant to different antibiotics.
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are the pathogenic subgroup of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli. EHEC can cause non-bloody and bloody diarrhoea, and the haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). 
There are different serotypes of EHEC one of which is the E. coli O57:H7 known from other outbreaks. Bacteriologists suggest that the EHEC bacterium developed from the Escherichia coli which lives in the healthy gut of men and animals. Over a certain period genetic material from bacteriphages were introduced in the DNA of the E.coli which mutated to pathogen strains. The excessive use of antibiotics and toxic agrarian chemicals speeded this process. According to veterinary officials the pathogen strains infects six per cent of cattle without producing disease. Manure containing these strains may contaminate directly vegetables and fruits or indirectly through affected irrigation water.
Scientists at the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Münster compared the genetic code of previous EHEC cases in Germany with the actual strain which was identified HUSEC41, sequence type ST678 of the seroytpe Escherichia coli O104:H4
According to Helge Karch, the O104:H4 is not known to have caused an outbreak before. The laboratory is now sequencing the whole genome of HUSEC41. An important finding is that the strain lacks the eae gene which encodes the protein intimin.
Intimin is a virulence factor (adhesin) of EPEC such as E. coli O127:H6 and EHEC such as E. coli O157:H7 Escherichia coli strains. It is an attaching and effacing protein which together with other virulence factors is responsible for enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic diarrhoea. 
Intimin is expressed on the bacterial cell surface. Together with Tir (Translocated intimin receptor) intimin is linked to infections of children. Its absence may explain the fact that mainly adult persons are affected from this outbreak.
Helge Karch of the Institute of Münster developed a method to speed the identification of the bacteria. Further work is being done to determine if there are any genetic variations which differ from the original Husec 41 strain.
 Spanische Gurken als Ehec-Quelle identifiziert. Spiegel Online. 26.05.2011
 Karch H, Tarr PI, Bielaszewska M. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human
medicine. Int.J.Med.Microbiol. 2005 Oct; 295(6-7):405-418
 Menezes MA, Aires KA, Ozaki CY, Ruiz RM, Pereira MC, Abreu PA, Elias WP, Ramos OH, Piazza RM: Cloning approach and functional analysis of anti-intimin single-chain variable fragment (scFv). BMC Res Notes. 2011 Feb 2;4:30.
24.05.2011: Monocultures of non-edible oil plants for Biodiesel endanger honey bees 
Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is largely cultivated in the region of northeastern Brazil for the production of biodiesel. . Assessing the toxicity of pollen samples of Ricinus communis to honey bees de Assis Junior and colleagues 2011 found that the survival of honey bees were significantly reduced if they had access to castor bean pollen. The authors concluded that expansion of castor bean plantations in Brazilian may endanger native and domestic honey bees. The authors call for more studies on the effect of non-edible oil plants to honey bees.
 Eudmar Marcolino de Assis Junior, Ismael Malaquias dos Santos Fernandes, Caio Sérgio Santos, Luciene Xavier de Mesquita, Rogério Aparecido Pereira, Patrício Borges Maracajá and Benito Soto-Blanco.
Brazil- Toxicity of Castor Bean (ricinus communis) pollen to honeybees. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 141 (1-2). Pages 221-223 April 2011.
24.05.2011: Honey containing pollen of GM plants will be ruled under the GM legislation 
The attorney general of the Court of Justice of the European Union, Yves Bot ruled that honey containing pollen derived from GM maize requires approval to be marketed within the Community. Pollen is a genetic modified organism which bears genetic informations of the plant of origin and must be ruled according to genetic engineering legislation . Under this legislation it is irrelevant how the pollen found its way to the honey and if it is fertile or not. If this rule comes into effect honey containing pollen of not allowed GM plants, such as the Canadian rapeseed honey needs to be approved by regulators before it can be sold in the European Union. 
Traces of genetically-modified pollen from a Monsanto maize crop (MON 810) in honey samples ignited the debate on how to reform the GM approval system. More than one third of crop plants depend on the pollination by honeybees.Interests of beekeepers are therefore of vital importance for agriculture.
 Honey containing GM needs approval before sale. European voice. 09.02.2011..
 Das deutsche Gentechnikrecht. Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz.
 Honig. Unverkäuflich durch Gen-Tech-Pollen? Ökotest 03.05.2011
24.05.2011: Outbreak of deadly EHEC Escherichia coli in Germany spreads quickly 
A rising number of acute infections and fatalities caused by the Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have occurred especially in Lower Saxony, Bremen and Schleswig-Holstein, but spreads quickly southward.
The German Robert Koch Institute could not determine the infection source yet, however, it is supposed that contaminated vegetable and salads are to be blamed. In the actual epidemic the source is not raw milk, cream cheese or meat. It is supposed that deposition of the life-threatening bacterium on vegetables and fruits resulting of spraying liquid manure in plantations are the cause of the epidemic. Women are more often preparing food and are therefore at higher risk to be contaminated while washing and preparing vegetables. E. coli O157:H7 can be found in the intestinal tract of cattle. Multiple factors contribute to the fact that the bacterium does not cause disease in ruminants and is considered commensal. 
Health officials advice to wash carefully vegetables, especially green leafy salads. Sanitise carefully cutting boards and knives and wash hands. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Transmission is via the fecal-oral route, and most illness has been associated with eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef, swimming in or drinking contaminated water, and eating contaminated vegetables. Laboratory tests need 36 hours to be accomplished. Some strains of the German outbreak present antibiotics resistance.
 Gefährlicher Darmkeim. Erste Todesopfer nach Ehec-Infektion. Spiegel Online 24.05.2011
 Quantrell RJO, Naylor SW, Roe AJ, Spears K, Gally DL: EHEC O157:H7 - getting to the
bottom of the burger bug. Microbiology Today. Volume 31. August 2004
22.05.2011: Clenbuterol in meat 
Clenbuterol is a beta-2 agonist and sympathomimetic amine that is used to treat breathing disorders. When fed to livestock it accelerates growth and increases the proportion of lean meat.
|In 2002 China banned the use of clenbuterol in feed after complaints of consumers suffering from nausea, dizziness, hypertension and hyperglycemia after eating pork raised with such feed.|
In March 2011 Shuanghui, largest meat producer of China was cited to produce meat tainted with illegal clenbuterol. People producing, selling or using clenbuterol were arrested. All meat product sales of Shuanghui have been suspended.
Pleadin et al. 2010 determined the concentration of clenbuterol in meat of pigs which were fed a growth-promoting dose of clenbuterol of 20 μg/kg body mass per day during 28 days. Residues of Clenbuterol in meat is found up to 7 days after treatment discontinuation.The chemical could not be detected only after 14 days of cessation of clenbuterol administration. 
Clenbuterol has also been used as a performance-enhancing drug and a number of athletes were banned after using the drug in 2008 to 2010. Traces of the amine from meat in the diet is regularly turning up in athletes' blood. A lab in Cologne, Germany, found that 22 of 28 travellers returning from China tested positive for low levels of clenbuterol, probably from food contamination. This may also affect athletes travelling to China. 
Veterinary professionals say the number of tests for clenbuterolin pig is to low because these tests are too costly. They call for the development of easier, cheaper, more convenient and wider-spectrum testing methods for regular food products. Liu and colleagues 2011 report the development of a method to determine 20 illegal residual beta-agonists in pork tissues, including muscle and liver simultaneously. 
 WADA investigating tainted beef in China. Athletes showing positive doping tests in China blamed cattle. CBC News. 22.02.2011.
 Pleadin J, Vulić A, Persi N, Vahcić N: Clenbuterol residues in pig muscle after repeat administration in a growth-promoting dose. Meat Sci. 2010 Nov;86(3):733-7
 WADA seeks tainted beef info from China. China Post. 24.02.2011.
 Liu C, Ling W, Xu W, Chai Y: Simultaneous determination of 20 beta-agonists in pig muscle and liver by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int. 2011 Mar-Apr;94(2):420-7.
22.05.2011: Coli bacteria EHEC outbreak in northern Germany 
There are 25 cases reported in Lower Saxony and Bremen and 20 diseased persons in Schleswig Holstein. Infections are very severe and some patients are in no condition to report what they had eaten. Most patients are female. Scientists of the Robert Koch institute say that contaminated raw vegetables may be the source of the bacteria in this outbreak, unlike other outbreaks where meat and milk had been blamed. Women are more often preparing food and are therefore at higher risk to be contaminated while washing and preparing vegetables.
Wash carefuly vegetables and fruits, and sanitise all knives and cardboards.
 Durchfall-Epedemie in Norddeutschland. Handelsblatt. 22.05.2011.
21.05.2011: Locusts against rain forest 
The Blackstone Gruppe is a 110 Billion Dollar investment fund with seat in New York. Blackstone enters the palm oil business in Africa. The Sithe Global owned 100% by Blackstone, together with Sithes and Herakles Farm will plant 60 000 hectares oh oil palms-
IMF and locusts 
When the European powers invaded the continent, they quickly realized that they could profit from trading palm kernels and palm oil, initially from natural palm stands and soon followed by the establishment of large-scale plantations, in most cases based on either forced or slave labour and in the appropriation of communities’ lands.
Independence resulted in the further entrenchment of the plantation system -encroaching on local peoples’ lands- now based on state-owned enterprises with attached large industrial processing units.
World Bank and IMF: World Bank and IMF-led structural adjustment policies imposed on African governments in the 90s resulted in the privatization of most of those industrial complexes and in the return of control over industrial palm oil production to foreign corporations. 
Sime Darby: Malaysian big player in the oil palm sector with 220,000 hectares of land lease in Liberia and is negotiating a 300,000 ha lease of land in Cameroon.
SG Sustainable Oils (SGSO) based in USA: is planning a 70,000 hectares oil palm plantation in the South West Region of Cameroon. SGSO has operated in an unscrupulous manner.
Eni and Petrobras in Angola and Mozambique 
The Brazilian company Petrobras, together with the Italian consortium ENI develop agrofuels in Africa, according to press reports in 2007. Europe, which is very interested in the development of renewable fuels as a source of energy, lacks the farmland necessary to produce major quantities of raw materials for biodiesel or ethanol. According to Petrobras supply director Paulo Roberto Costa, the two countries are searching for potential projects for developing plantations and refineries in Angola and Mozambique focusing on biodiesel. A portion of the oil will be put on the domestic edible oil market, but the main output will be used as biofuels.
 Afrika: Heuschrecke gegen Regenwald
 Cameroon: peoples territories being targeted for oil palm plantations. World Rainforest Movement
 Carrere, R: Oil palm in Africa, past, present and future scenarios. World Rainforest Movement December 2010.
21.05.2011: The Mkuju River Uranium Project of Mantra Resources 
Drill campaigns have delivered an inferred resource of 35.9 million pounds of U3O8 at 409 ppm.
Uranium has three natural occurring isotopes of which each are emitting gamma, beta and alpha rays. Canada is the leading country in the world for production of Uranium. In Africa the leading states in the production of Uranium includes: Namibia, South Africa and Niger. Tanzania is going to join the train soon due to its high deposit of this metal in many places.
Mkuju Uranium Project: is located within the national park. Villagers were once forced to quit the place so as it can be used for national- park purposes. Now the area was opened for Uranium exploration.
UNESCO prohibits carrying out any activity which could cause harmful effects to the living organisms located in the Heritage site. This project is estimated to contain 82.3 tones of Uranium Deposit in an area of 3225 Kilometres.
Permission to drill for Uranium in Selous Game Reserve 
About 80% of the project is located inside the Selous game reserve. The Mantra (MRU) has been granted permission by the relevant government authority to undertake uranium drilling all year round. The current President of Tanzania , Jakaya Kikwete understands and supports the mining industry, having served as the Minister for Energy and Minerals under a previous government.
Yellow Cake production will use the water of the Mkuju River. See production flow sheet at pg 6 . See prospect location pg 2 and pg 6 .
Selous Game Reserve 
Selous became a hunting reserve in 1905 and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982 due to the diversity of its wildlife and undisturbed nature.
The most significant threats are related to exploration and extraction of minerals, oil and gas, and large infrastructure plans; environmental impact assessments need to be conducted for all development activities in the vicinity of the property that are likely to have an impact of the property's Outstanding Universal Value.
The uranium mine will embrace adjacent wetland Bahi which is used for farming. Each ton of uranium leaves 99 tons of radioactive sludge which have to be stored indefinitely in open trough. Mining and ore processing will contaminate soil and water of the Mkuju river. Wide area of the Selous Game Reserve will be contaminated by these spills. 
 Uranium exploration: Do Tanzanians know the dangers it poses to them? 2This Day, The Voice of Transparency,3.12.2010
 Sleeping giant. Mantra Spec Buy. Research Argonaut 19.02.2009
 Selous Game Reserve. UNESCO World Heritage Convention
 Uranmine bedroht Weltnaturerbe. Rettet den Regenwald. 20.05.2011.
20.05.2011: Genetics may reduce impact of African trypanosomiasis in cattle 
Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease of people and animals, caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease is endemic in some regions of sub-Saharan Africa.
According to the World Health Organization around 30,000 Africans a year get sleeping sickness mainly in sub-Saharan African nations and disease of cattle leads to annual losses of up to $5 billion.
Goodhead et al 2011 report the finding of two genes which may help cattle breeders to select animals more able to survive an infection of Trypanosoma congolense, such as the humpless West African breed which is less susceptible to the disease compared with the high susceptible humped breed. However, the resistant humpless cattle is smaller, produce less milk, and is less docile than the humped the humped breed.
Trypanosoma congolense is responsible for the disease nagana in cattle and other animals including sheep, pigs, goats, horses and camels, as well as laboratory mice. It is spread by tsetse flies.
Laboratory mice, infected by trypanosomes presented different survival time after infection is controlled by three genomic regions Tir1, Tir2 and Tir3 which contain over one thousand genes. In these regions two genes, Pram1 at Tir1 and Cd244 at Tir3, were found to reduce survival time, and Tir2 increased survival time after an infection. The Tir2 loci was absent in trypanosomiasis susceptible animals.
These findings may be useful for breeding programs to screen African cattle and find animals which are more resistant to the disease and combine them with traits of increased productivity and drought tolerance.
 Goodhead I, Archibald A, Amwayi P, Brass A, Gibson J, Hall N, Hughes MA, Limo M, Iraqi F, Kemp SJ, Noyes HA. A comprehensive genetic analysis of candidate genes regulating response to Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Nov 9;4(11):e880.
19.05.2011: Dengue virus 
Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that causes a severe flu-like illness, and sometimes a potentially lethal complication called dengue haemorrhagic fever. Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquito within the Aedes genus, principally Aedes aegypti which acquired the virus an infected persons or monkeys. There is no vaccine. Prevention concentrates on reducing the habitat and the number of mosquitoes and limiting exposure to bites. The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. Some 2.5 billion people, two fifths of the world's population, are now at risk from dengue.
Laboratory diagnosis methods for confirming dengue virus infection may involve detection of the virus, viral nucleic acid, antigens or antibodies, or a combination of these techniques. After the onset of illness, the virus can be detected in serum, plasma, circulating blood cells and other tissues for 4-5 days. During the early stages of the disease, virus isolation, nucleic acid or antigen detection can be used to diagnose the infection. At the end of the acute phase of infection, serology is the method of choice for diagnosis.
Diagnostic methods: Virus isolation, genome detection, NS1 detection, serology IgM, serology IgG, haematological tests (Platelets and haematocrit values)
There are four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to 4) causing different symptoms, such as Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Lima et al 2011 investigate the usefulness of NS1 capture tests as an alternative tool to detect DENV in tissue specimens from dengue fatal cases occurred in 2002 in Brazil. The authors evaluated three tests for NS1 antigen capture: first generation Dengue Early ELISA, Platelia NS1 and the rapid test NS1 Ag Strip. The NS1 Ag Strip performed best of all three tests. The authors concluded that DENV NS1 capture assay is a rapid and valuable approach to postmortem dengue confirmation in different tissues. 
Polyclonal antibodies against Dengue virus Protein expressed in E.coli 
The non-structural 1 (NS1) protein plays an important role in dengue diagnosis. It is present as serum antigen in both primary and secondary infections. Alonso and colleagues 2011 describe a polyclonal antibody produced from the properly folded E. coli recombinant NS1 (rNS1) protein which could detect 100\% of the Dengue virus 2 (DENV2) in infected patients. The study demonstrates the correctly folding rNS1 that maintains its structural and immunogenic properties, enabling an early diagnosis.
Testing saliva for Dengue antibidies in early phase of regions with secondary infections 
Yap and colleagues 2011 used an antigen capture anti-DENV IgA (ACA) ELISA technique to test saliva samples for Dengue antibodies. The sensitivity within 3 days from fever onset was over 36\% in primary dengue infections, and 100\% in secondary infections,within 1 Day after fever onset. Testing saliva is much cheaper then performing tests on venous blood. The authors suggest that saliva should be tested to detects dengue virus (DENV)-specific immunoglobulin A (Ig A) early in the phase of a dengue infection.
 WHO: Dengue Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control 2009
 Lima Mda R, Nogueira RM, Schatzmayr HG, de Filippis AM, Limonta D, Dos Santos FB: A New Approach to Dengue Fatal Cases Diagnosis: NS1 Antigen Capture in Tissues. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 May 3;5(5):e1147.
 Allonso D, da Silva Rosa M, Coelho DR, da Costa SM, Nogueira RM, Bozza FA, Santos FB, de Barcelos Alves AM, Mohana-Borges R: Polyclonal antibodies against properly folded Dengue virus NS1 protein expressed in E. coli enable sensitive and early dengue diagnosis. J Virol Methods. 2011 May 4.
.Yap G, Sil BK, Ng LC: Use of saliva for early dengue diagnosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 May 10;5(5):e1046
16.05.2011:Pigs may transmit ebolavirus to other animals and humans 
Reston ebolavirus, an ebolavirus which is not pathogen to humans, was detected in pigs in the Philippines, and specific antibodies were found in pig farmers which did not develop the disease.
Kobinger et al 2011, found that the human highly pathogen Zaire ebolavirus may infect pigs, replicate, cause disease of the respiratory tract and is transmitted to other animals. Shedding of the virus from nasal mucosa was detected for up to 14 days post-infection, and severe lung disease was observed. Human outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, caused by the Zaire ebolavirus has a fatality rate as high as 90 percent in humans. The findings of the authors suggest that pigs may be able to transmit virulent ebolavirus to humans as well.
The authors stress that in primates Zaire ebolavirus affects multiple organs, leading to shock and death, but in pigs the virus causes respiratory syndromes which may be mistaken for other porcine respiratory diseases.
 Kobinger GP, Leung A, Neufeld J, Richardson JS, Falzarano D, Smith G, Tierney K, Patell A, Weingart HM: Replication, Pathogenicity, Shedding, and Transmission of Zaire ebolavirus in Pigs. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2011 Doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir077
12.05.2011: Chloropropanols in food 
The European Commission, in the Regulation No 1881/2006, fixed the limit on the level of
3-MCPD in soy sauce and acid hydrolysed vegetable protein at 20 μg kg−1. This limit is for a liquid product containing 40% dry matter, corresponding to a maximum level of 50 μg kg−1 in dry matter. The level needs to be adjusted according to the dry matter content of the product. It also sets the tolerable daily intake (TDI) at 2 μg kg−1 bw (bodyweight). 
There is no EU regulation for the other chloropropanols. For 1,3-DCP, the general agreement is that its level should be kept as low as reasonably possible. 3-MCPD also represents a challenge in the production of paper towels using resin containing epichlorhydrin resulted in a high loading of 3-MCPD in the final paper towel. Epichlorhydrin can also affect food when it is present in coating materials and 3-MCPD migrating into the food may occur such as sausage casings, tea bags, coffee filter and others.
Deep frying palm oil contaminants increase risk of benign tumour and kidney damage 
The German Ökotest journal reports contaminants in French fries which increase risk of benign tumour and kidney damage, such as 3-MCPD-Ester and carcinogen glycidylester. Palm oil used for deep frying of the potato products is the source of these contaminants which are formed during refining of palm oil and can be found in foods containing this fat, such as margarine and fried products.. The German Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in a report of 2009 warn of these contaminants . Palm oil is also considered as unhealthy because of its high amount of saturated fatty acids.
Buhrke and collegues 2011  compared different analysing methods of these contaminants. They report that glycidyl esters is present only in refined, but not in crude or native, fats and oils. Palm oil and palm oil-based fats had highest concentrations on glycidyl esters, varying according to different deodorization parameters, temperature, and time, while 3-MCPD ester concentration was relatively constant. The authors suggest that formation of glycidyl esters, but not 3-MCPD may be reduced by optimizing refining parameters.
Dietary exposure to 3-MCPD 
3-Mono-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a contaminant that occurs in food in its free (diol) form as well as in an esterified (with fatty acids) form. Seefelder et al. 2008 found that the yield of 3-MCPD from a 3-MCPD monoester was high, but the release from the diesters was slow. The slow release of 3-MCPD from 3-MCPD diesters, and the mono- to diesters ratio suggest that 3-MCPD esters may in fact contribute only marginally to the overall dietary exposure to 3-MCPD.The authors call for more research on the bioavailability, metabolism and possible toxicity of these chloroesters.
Formation of MCPD and glycidyl esters 
Haines and colleagues 2011 reports that. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and MCPD esters were known to form from glycerol released from triacylglycerols treated with hydrochloric acid.
Baer et al 2010 stress the concern related to the carcinogenic properties of 3-MCPD the contaminants regardless of low levels as it it found in a variety of foodstuffs. To minimize the formation of 3-MCPD the authors suggest to raising the pH of high moisture content food, reduce the processing temperature and salt content of the food, avoid low-water/high-temperature treatments, limit the amount of glycerol produced in the food during process and storage, avoid the use of partial glycerides as additives, use spice extract instead of native spices, or reducing the microbial load via thermal treatment, confirm the purity of food additives, Inactivation of lipases/esterases and screen food contact materials for 3-MCPD precursors. 
The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) report on 3-MCPD esters 
According to a report from the International Life Sciences Institute, ILSI 3-MCPD esters are formed at high temperatures during the refining of edible fats and oils, mainly during the deodorisation step, in presence of chloride ions, glycerol, tri-, di- or monoacylglycerides, depending on temperature and time.
According to a 2009 report from the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), high levels of 3-MCPD esters are being found in refined edible fats, such as margarine and oils, and in fat-containing foods including infant formula and human milk. The major chloropropanol is 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD). It is formed when fat- and salt-containing foods are processed at high temperatures during production.
The 3-MCPD esters are formed in all refined oils and fats during the refining, mainly during the deodorisation procedure in presence of chloride ions, glycerol, tri-, di- or monoacylglycerides, depending on temperature and time. Refined palm oil contains 4.5-13 mg/kg 3-MCPD esters, together with other thermally processed foods like French fries, toasted bread, bread crust, donuts, salty crackers, roasted coffee, roasted chicory (coffee surrogate), roasted barley, roasted dark malt and coffee creamer, and in fermented foods like pickled herring and sausage, whose levels of free 3-MCPD vary between 0.2 and 6.6 mg/kg.
Soy sauce and soy-sauce based products are the main source of 3-MCPD. The European Commission, therefore, limited the maximum allowed content of 3-MCPD in hydrolysed vegetable protein and soy sauce to 20 microg/kg of product . Some other foods eaten in large quantities, such as bread and noodles, also contributed significantly to intake because of high consumption of these foods.
 Baer I, Beatriz de la Calle and Philip Taylor: 3-MCPD in food other than soy sauce or hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP). Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010 Jan;396(1):443-56. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-009-3177-y
 Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.
 Pommes frites, Backofen. Oekotest. May 2011.
 Erste Einschätzung zur Bewertung der in raffinierten pflanzlichen Fetten nach-gewiesenen Gehalte von Glycidol-Fettsäureestern. Stellungnahme Nr. 007/2009 des BfR vom 10. März 2009
 Buhrke T, Weisshaar R, Lampen A: Absorption and metabolism of the food contaminant 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and its fatty acid esters by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Arch Toxicol. 2011 Feb 16.
 Seefelder W, Varga N, Studer A, Williamson G, Scanlan FP, Stadler RH: Esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) in vegetable oils: significance in the formation of 3-MCPD. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008 Apr;25(4):391-400.
 Haines TD, Adlaf KJ, Pierceall RM, Lee I, Venkitasubramanian P, Collison MW: Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2011 Jan;88(1):1-14.
 ILSI Europe Report Series: 3-MCPD esters in food products. Summary report of a workshop held in February 2009 in International Life Sciences Institute, Brussels, Belgium.
09.05.2011: Coffee reduces risk of Parkinson's disease 
Payami et al 2010 report that the GRIN 2A gene controls the activity of coffee reducing the risk of Parkinson’s disease for some people. The researchers compared the amount of caffeinated coffee consumed during lifetime and the coexistence of the GRIN2A gene. Those who had high intake of coffee, and the GRIN 2A gene presented the lowest risk of Parkinson's disease. This special gene is present in about 25% of the population.
The authors explain further, that the GRIN 2A gene is associated with glutamate which kills brain affected by the Parkinson’s disease patients adenosine may be involved in this process. Coffee may interfere with this pathway.
In Parkinson’s disease the immune system attacks neurons in the substantia nigra, a part of the brain that helps control movement, resulting in involuntary shaking, slow movement, stiffened muscle tone, and impaired balance. The cause is unclear, but researchers are looking for an interplay of genetics and environmental factors, such as caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking reducing the risk of the disease. These findings may help to identify patients which respond to drugs targeting the caffeine pathway. More studies are needed and at present patients should not change their caffeine consumption.
Genes associated with Parkinson's disease
The authors describe SNCA and MAPTgenes, associated with GAK and HLA region which have only a small impact on disease risk by itself, but additively, these genes can have a large impact,
MAPT gene encodes a protein inside neurons and SNCA encodes alpha-synuclein which regulates signaling both within and between neurons.
The HLA genes encode proteins which identify cells as "foreign".A variant of the HLA-DRA gene is the GAK gene which is strongly associated with late-onset, sporadic cases and was seen more often in men
In addition to finding an association between Parkinson’s disease and a variant in HLA-DRA, the study confirmed previously reported associations with SNCA, MAPT and a gene called GAK. The variant in HLA-DRA was most strongly associated with, who are affected by sporadic Parkinson’s disease more often than women. 
Caffeine or nicotine do not reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease 
Trinh et al.2010 studying the effect on Parkinson's disease found that coffee and tobacco, but not caffeine or nicotine, are neuroprotective in fly Parkinson disease models. The authors stress further that these effects can also be noted with Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease and polyglutamine disease.
The authors explain that the mentioned neuroprotective effects require the activity of the transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2 activator in coffee, cafestol, which may be used for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases.
 Hamza TH, Zabetian CP, Tenesa A, Laederach A, Montimurro J, Yearout D, Kay DM, Doheny KF, Paschall J, Pugh E, Kusel VI, Collura R, Roberts J, Griffith A, Samii A, Scott WK, Nutt J, Factor SA, Payami H: Common genetic variation in the HLA region is associated with late-onset sporadic Parkinson's disease. Nat Genet. 2010 Sep;42(9):781-5.
 Researchers Explore Gene-Caffeine Interaction in Parkinson’s Disease. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 29.09.2010.
 Trinh K, Andrews L, Krause J, Hanak T, Lee D, Gelb M, Pallanck L: Decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco provide neuroprotection in Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease through an NRF2-dependent mechanism. J Neurosci. 2010 Apr 21;30(16):5525-32.
08.05.2011: Omega- fatty acids of fish oil may increase risk of prostate cancer 
Brasky et al 2011 suggest that high levels of omega-3 fatty acids reduce heart diseases, but may harm the prostate. The authors report that high levels of omega-3 fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA), rises the risk of developing aggressive, high-grade prostate cancer by two and a half times compared to men with low DHA intake. Data of serum concentrations of omega-3, omega-6, and trans-fatty acids of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were collected between 1994 and 2003. Trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, linked to inflammation and heart disease, were associated with 50% reduced risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Both types did not raise the risk of low-grade prostate cancer. They also found that omega-6 fatty acid, common in most vegetable oils, was not linked to a raised risk of either high-grade or low-grade prostate cancer.
The findings of Brasky and colleagues are confusing as chronic inflammation are known to increase the risk of several cancers, and the omega-3 fatty acids of fish and fish oil supplements have anti-inflammatory effects, and mega-6 fats in vegetable oil and trans-fats found in fast foods, may promote inflammation. The authors say that these findings demonstrate the complexity of the association of nutrition and chronic diseases, such as inflammation and prostate cancer. Anyhow, the beneficial effects of eating fish to prevent heart disease outweigh any harm related to prostate cancer risk, say the authors, and experts recommend 450 milligrams of omega-3 DHA per day as part of a healthy diet.
Nutrients suggested for prostate cancer prevention 
In a study of 2010 by Kristal et al dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer. Diet or supplements, such as lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were not significantly associated with cancer risk. The authors stress further that high intake of n-6 fatty acids may increase prostate cancer risk.
 Brasky TM, Till C, White E, Neuhouser ML, Song X, Goodman P, Thompson IM, King IB, Albanes D, Kristal AR: Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial: Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Apr 24.
Kristal AR, Arnold KB, Neuhouser ML, Goodman P, Platz EA, Albanes D, Thompson IM: Diet, supplement use, and prostate cancer risk: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial.Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Sep 1;172(5):566-77.
08.05.2011: Half of US meat and poultry found contaminated with antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus 
Waters et al. 2011 found that 47% of meat and poultry were contaminated with Staphylococcus. aureus, of which 52% were resistant to at least three classes of antibiotics. The genotypes and resistant profiles suggest that the source of these bacteria come from food animals.
Low doses of antibiotics used as feed supplements industrial farms are ideal places for the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Staphylococcal enterotoxin is resistant to cooking temperatures
Staphylococcus aureus causes cause a range of illnesses from skin infections to life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, endocarditis and sepsis in animals and man. Important for the food industry is the fact that Staphylococcus aureus may form toxins which cause food poisoning. Contamination of meat, poultry or even eggs may be traced back to contact with infected wounds of animals or hands of food workers. Waters and colleagues 2011 stress the need to wear gloves when handling foodstuffs and refer to proper cooling of meat and poultry to avoid the development of staphylococcal enterotoxin. There are about 14 different staphylococcal enterotoxins which are highly resistant to digestion by proteolytic enzymes such as pepsin and trypsin. Staphylococcus enterotoxins are highly resistant to heat.
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A in pasteurised milk 
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is an exotoxin is resposible for frequent staphylococca food poisoning worldwide. The toxin is heat-resistant, and are not completely inactivated by usual cooking procedures. Sospedra et al. 2011 describe a method to detect Staphylococcal enterotoxin A from pasteurised milk.
Ham staphylococcal food poisoning 
Staphylococcal enterotoxin D production in boiled ham, smoked ham and dry-curred Serrano after 7 days at room temperature were analysed by Márta et al 2011. Smoked ham developed nine times less Staphylococcal enterotoxin D per colony-forming unit of S. aureus than in boiled ham. In boiled ham, the SED levels unpredictably decreased after three days of incubation. The authors stress that production levels of SED vary in the different ham products, but after five days all ham products developed staphylococcal enterotoxin D sufficient to cause staphylococcal food poisoning.
 A. E. Waters, T. Contente-Cuomo, J. Buchhagen, C. M. Liu, L. Watson, K. Pearce, J. T. Foster, J. Bowers, E. M. Driebe, D. M. Engelthaler, P. S. Keim, L. B. Price. Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2011; DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir181
.Sospedra I, Soler C, Mañes J, Soriano JM: Analysis of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in milk by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 May;400(5):1525-31.
 Márta D, Wallin-Carlquist N, Schelin J, Borch E, Rådström P: Extended staphylococcal enterotoxin D expression in ham products. Food Microbiol. 2011 May;28(3):617-20.
06.05.2011: Salt reduction in general population may increase mortality up to 50%, new study says 
A new European study leaded by Dr Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek questions benefits of salt reduction of the diet in populations around the world. The study also denies the calculations which estimate savings of lives and healthcare costs promoting diet salt reduction.
The authors looked at the long term relationship of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion to blood pressure (BP) and health outcomes, using data of the Flemish Study on Genes, Environment, and Health Outcomes (1985-2004) and the European Project on Genes in Hypertension (1999-2001).
Mortality 50% Higher in the Lowest Tertile of Sodium Excretion
The study reports that among 3681 participants during 7.9 years, cardiovascular deaths decreased across increasing tertiles of 24-hour sodium excretion, from 50 deaths in the low- (mean 107 mmol) to 24 in the medium- (mean 168 mmol) and 10 in the high-excretion group (mean 260 mmol, resulting in respective death rates of 4.1%, 1.9%, and 0.8%.
The authors say that it might not be right to impose a general reduction on sodium intake. They also support the theory that sodium restriction is meaningful for patients who already have hypertension and perhaps for patients with heart failure, but there are very few arguments showing that reducing salt intake in the general population would result in substantial benefit, despite a very small rise in systolic blood pressure of 1.71 mm Hg for each 100-mmol increment in sodium intake, during the follow-up of 6.2 years.
The authors suggest that the inverse association between lower sodium intake and higher cardiovascular mortality, stating that a salt intake low enough to decrease blood pressure also increases sympathetic nerve activity, decreases insulin sensitivity, activates the renin-angiotensin system, and stimulates aldosterone secretion.
Advocates of salt reduction
Dr Graham MacGregor, an expert on salt reduction and campaigner to reduce salt content in foods, presents doubts on the conclusions of the paper of Stolarz-Skrzypek and colleagues arguing that it presents severe methodological problems. Mac Gregor reaffirms that everything. He calls on the overall evidence in favour of salt reduction and the recommendations of the World Health Organization which to reduce salt intake as the next thing after tobacco reduction. 
MacGregor argues that the reduction of salt by the amounts of actual recommendations does not increase sympathetic tone, there is a trivial increase in renin, and no adverse effects result.
Salt recommendations in grams/day
|Salt grams/day||Sodium grams/day|
in Europe 
|8 to 11||3 to 5|
|WHO Recommendation ||less than 5||less than 2,5|
|SACN Recommendation ||5 to 6||2 to 2,5|
World Action on Salt and Health (WASH) 
He, Jenner and Macgregor 2010 refer to the overwhelming evidence that our current high-salt intake is the major factor increasing blood pressure, a major cause of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease worldwide. Reducing salt intake to less than 5-6 g/day could prevent yearly millions of deaths. Reduction of salt added to foods, clear labelling on food products, and increasing public awareness of the harmful effects of salt on health were already implemented in Finnland and UK and are being followed by many developed countries. However, much must be done in developing countries where up to 80% of global blood pressure diseases occur. World Action on Salt and Health (WASH) promotes worldwide reduction of salt intake. 
 Stolarz-Skrzypek K, Kuznetsova T, Thijs L, Tikhonoff V, Seidlerová J, Richart T, Jin Y, Olszanecka A, Malyutina S, Casiglia E, Filipovsky J, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Nikitin Y, Staessen JA; for the European Project on Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH) Investigators: Fatal and Nonfatal Outcomes, Incidence of Hypertension, and Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Urinary Sodium Excretion. JAMA. 2011 May 4;305(17):1777-1785.
 He FJ, MacGregor GA: A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. J Hum Hypertens. 2009 Jun;23(6):363-84.
 Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Sodium. EFSA 2005.
 Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Population sodium reduction strategies
 Scientific advisory committee on nutrition: Salt and Health
 World Action on Salt and Health (WASH).
 He FJ, Jenner KH, Macgregor GA: WASH-world action on salt and health. Kidney Int. 2010 Oct;78(8):745-53.
04.05.2011 Agriculture in the Gulf region
Reintroducing native buffelgrass in the Emirates 
The Ministry of Environment and Water, and the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (Icarda) are trying to reintroduce buffel grass which uses only a fifth of water needed for Rhodes grass and has similar nutritional content. Six hours a day watering of grass could thus reduced to 20 minutes. Icarda is planning to develop seed facilities in the UAE, Oman and Saudi Arabia to check whether seeds are healthy to avoid any disease to spread. 
Rhodes grass was imported from Africa and became the leading grass as feed. Rhodes grass needs high amounts of water Most farmers in the UAE plant Rhodes grass and alfalfa as livestock feed.
Buffel Grass 
Buffel Grass or African Foxtail Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) is a species of grass native to most of Africa, southern Asia (east to India), Southern Iran, Middle East, Indonesia and the extreme south of Europe (Sicily). Introduced to Australia and the New World such as the Sonoran Desert Region and southern Arizona. It became invasive. Easy to ignite it became a fire hazzard, regrowing where other plants were ultimately destroyed by fire. In some US regions buffel grass is being controlled by manual pulling and herbicides.
Buffel grass is still valued as livestock forage, however it is not nearly as economically viable as first thought, because of its limited life of pastures. Buffel grass impoverishes the soil and eventually dies, leaving behind a sterile wasteland.
Rhodes Grass 
Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) was imported from Africa and became the leading grass as feed. Rhodes grass needs high amounts of water.
Suited to a wide range of soils from light textured sandy loams to heavy textured soils. Moderate resistance to drought. Spreads readily by runners. Useful for erosion control because of strong runner (stolon) growth and a vigorous root system, assuring some
degree of drought tolerance, but needs a minimum of 500mm rainfall/y. It is highly salt tolerant
A call for sustainable use of arable land in the region and Arabfood standards 
Speakers at the Arab Food Industries and Franchising Forum in Jordan argued that if land in Sudan, Iraq, Libya, Algeria and Morocco were fully used it could support the rest of the region. According to George Nasrawi only a tenth of available arable land is being used for agriculture. Tourism and property offer quick returns, however this management of local resources is not.
According to Arab food experts higher food standards which are valid between all Arab countries are needed. The GCC set of standards are not completely implemented in all countries. Such standards should unify the conditions in which foodstuffs are grown and increased control of amount and type of pesticides being used to insure food safety of the Mena and Gulf region.
 Farmers told to plant 'greener' grass. The National. 30.01.2011.
 Indigenous grasses to reduce water waste. The National. 29.01.2011.
 Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)
 Rhodes grass
 Unused land in Africa could feed the Gulf
03.05.2011: Camel milk for the European market 
A team of inspectors of the European Union will verify food safety of production of camel milk in the United Arab Emirates UAE in order to allow the selling of camel milk to Europe. For this, the production must be increased. Arabian camels produce produce eight litres of milk whereas a cow produces up to 40 litres/day. To increase milk yield the UAE looks at Turkmeni dromedary camels which produce nearly 50 per cent more milk than the UAE's.
Pakistan and Afghanistan camels have the highest yields of milk, up to 30 litres per day. The Bactrian camel, produces between 2.5-5 litres per day. The dromedary, one-humped camel, produces an average of 6-9 litres per day. Intensive breeding of cows has created animals that can produce 40 litres per day.
Camel milk marketed as healthy food
Tests have shown the milk has less than half the fat and 40 per cent of the cholesterol of cows' milk - as well as three times the vitamin C.
It can be digested by people who are intolerant to lactose, and can even ease food allergies. All this, Emirates Industry believes, gives it the scope to be marketed as a health food.
Camels can endure 21 days without drinking water and may feed on low-quality fodder and still produce milk. These animals are therefore an option for food security in hot and dry areas...
Lactation of camels
Gestation of camels takes thirteen month. The mother must stay with the calf and raise it herself, otherwise it will stop producing milk, whereas a dairy cow can be separated from her calf when it is born and still gives milk for six to nine months. A mother camel can feed her calf and can be milked for twelve to eighteen months.
Water deprivation impact on camel milk 
Bekele et al. 2011 report that camels maintain milk volume during water deprivation for about 1 week, but they produced less milk during the second week. Osmolality increased during the first 4 days of water deprivation, but remained at this level during another 12 days without watering. Milk lactose content did not increase. The authors stress that camels do not dilute their milk when dehydrated.
Camel brucellosis in Sudan 
Omer and colleagues 2010 assessed brucellosis in Sudan. Seroprevalence in camels milk and serum samples was 37.5% and 9% in abattoir workers. Brucella abortus biovar 6 was isolated from camels and cows, suggesting that camels were infected from cattle which is the primary host of B. abortus.
Camel Q fever in cattle and camels 
Rahimi et al. 2011 used polymerase chain reaction to determine the contamination of Coxiella burnetii as source of Q fever infection in dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Iran. Using polymerase chain reaction in bulk milk samples, the authors found positive rections for Coxiella burnetii in 3.2% bovine milk samples, 5.7% sheep milk samples, 4.5% goat milk samples and 1.4% camel milk samples. The authors call for more studies on prevalence and epidemiology of Q fever in Iran.
Coxiella burnetii shedding seems to occur frequently in milk taken from asymptomatic dairy cows. The number of Coxiella shed in milk is generally low. The phase I vaccine prevented abortion and greatly decreased the shedding of C. burnetii in milk. 
Fretz et al 2007 report the results of a screening of Q-fever agent in bulk milk samples from cows, sheep and goats and in shell eggs produced in and imported into Switzerland. In this study 4.7 of the samples of bovine milk samples tested positive for Coxiella burnetii by nested PCR. Ovine and caprine bulk milk samples, and shell eggs were also found to be negative for C. burnetii. The authors concluded that Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle is frequent. 
Goat exposure was associated with increased seroprevalence of Q fever counting up to 26.3% in veterinaries and farm workers in southern Taiwan, and 43.8% goats tested poitive for Coxiella burnetii. Chang et al. 2010 concluded that goats the most important risk of human contamination with Ccoxiella burnetii and health education could help to reduce Coxiella burnetii risk infection in southern Taiwan. 
Camelpox is a contagious skin disease of camelids caused by camelpox virus (CMLV) and is characterized by mild local skin infection and less common severe systemic infections going ahead with morbidity, mortality, loss of weight and reduction in milk yield. The virus has close genetic relatedness to variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, and carrying genes responsible for host immune evasion mechanisms say Bhanuprakash et al 2010.
GB virus C in Arabian camels 
GB virus C (GBV-C), formerly known as Hepatitis G virus (HGV), is known to infect humans, but is not known to cause human disease. Abu Odeh 2011 found 18.2% of dromedary Arabian camels in the United Arab Emirates positive for GBV-C , however, all camels milk samples tested negative. Sequence analysis of the 5'-UTR using isolates from the 4 camels revealed the prevalence of the European/North American genotype 2.
Composition of camel milk 
Konuspayeva et al.2009 describe the camel milk composition from dromedary and Bactrian species
Asian values were higher in all the components, except ash, because of the predominance of the Bactrian camel in this region. Fat content of camel milk of East Africa was higher than milk from other areas of Africa and Western Asia. Camel milk from Kazakhstan hat higher content of fat and protein but reduced lactose compared to references from Central Asia. Tables of composition of camel milk may be found at:
 UAE set to import camels. The National 2.05.2011
 Bekele T, Lundeheim N, Dahlborn K: Milk production and feeding behavior in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) during 4 watering regimens. J Dairy Sci. 2011 Mar;94(3):1310-7.
 Omer MM, Musa MT, Bakhiet MR, Perrett L. Brucellosis in camels, cattle and humans: associations and evaluation of serological tests used for diagnosis of the disease in certain nomadic localities in Sudan. Rev Sci Tech. 2010 Dec;29(3):663-9.
 Rahimi E, Ameri M, Karim G, Doosti A: Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, caprine, and camel herds in Iran as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011 Feb;8(2):307-10.
 Rodolakis A: Q Fever in dairy animals. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 May;1166:90-3
 Fretz R, Schaeren W, Tanner M, Baumgartner A: Screening of various foodstuffs for occurrence of Coxiella burnetii in Switzerland. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 May 30;116(3):414-8.
 Chang CC, Lin PS, Hou MY, Lin CC, Hung MN, Wu TM, Shu PY, Shih WY, Lin JH, Chen WC, Wu HS, Lin LJ: Identification of risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) infection in veterinary-associated populations in southern Taiwan. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010 Dec;57(7-8):e95-101. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2009.01290.x.
 Bhanuprakash V, Prabhu M, Venkatesan G, Balamurugan V, Hosamani M, Pathak KM, Singh RK: Camelpox: epidemiology, diagnosis and control measures. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010 Oct;8(10):1187-201.
 Abu Odeh RO: Detection and genotyping of GB virus-C in dromedary camels in the United Arab Emirates.Vet Microbiol. 2011 Jan 27;147(3-4):226-30.
 Konuspayeva G, Faye B, Loiseau G: The composition of camel milk: A meta-analysis of the literature data. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 22 (2009) 95–101
02.05.2011: Statistical early warning signals of ecosystem catastrophes 
Carpenter et al. 20011 found that statistic models used to assess catastrophic changes in economic and medical systems can also predict ecosystem collapses. The authors write that early signals of an ecological catastrophe are the slowing return rates from perturbation and rising variance in an aquatic food web. The authors added top predators to a lake to destabilize its food web. Small fish sensed the danger and fled to hides near the shores. The population of water flea at open water increased and their food, phytoplancton, decreased. These warning signals could be detected more than a year before the change of the food web broke down.
Examples of such measurable increase in variance are fluctuations in brain waves, the Dow Jones index, or chlorophyll of algae as noted in the food web of the lake described in this study. Similar symptoms occur in many systems like. Such signals can be identified, early enough to interfere, before they reach a critical state of transition known as “tipping point”. 
William A. Brock and colleagues identified such generic early-warning signals that may indicate for a wide class of systems if a critical threshold is approaching. The researchers developed the mathematical bifurcation theory and its branch, the catastrophe theory, to enable researchers to identify unusual changes in the system's natural patterns of variability as warning of an ecological catastrophe. The researchers defined "catastrophic bifurcations," as diverging of the ways, which propel a system toward a new state once a certain threshold is exceeded. 
Bifurcation theory 
Most commonly applied to the mathematical study of dynamical systems, a bifurcation occurs when a small smooth change made to the parameter values (the bifurcation parameters) of a system causes a sudden 'qualitative' or topological change in its behaviour.
Catastrophe theory is a branch of bifurcation theory in the study of dynamical systems.
Small changes in certain parameters of a nonlinear system can cause equilibria to appear or disappear, or to change from attracting to repelling and vice versa, leading to large and sudden changes of the behaviour of the system. However, examined in a larger parameter space, catastrophe theory reveals that such bifurcation points tend to occur as part of well-defined qualitative geometrical structures. 
Carpenter and colleagues stress, however, that intense and continuous monitoring of an ecosystem's chemistry, physical properties and biota are required to have such warning system functioning. This is difficult to implement for every threatened ecosystem, but costs to reverse changes of an ecosystem are much higher.
 Carpenter SR, Cole JJ, Pace ML, Batt R, Brock WA, Cline T, Coloso J, Hodgson JR, Kitchell JF, Seekell DA, Smith L, Weidel B: Early Warnings of Regime Shifts: A Whole-Ecosystem Experiment. Science. 2011 Apr 28.
 A Tale of Two Lakes: One Gives Early Warning Signal for Ecosystem Collapse
First experimental evidence that radical ecosystem change can be detected in advance. April 28, 2011
 Marten Scheffer, Jordi Bascompte, William A. Brock, Victor Brovkin, Stephen R. Carpenter, Vasilis Dakos, Hermann Held, Egbert H. van Nes, Max Rietkerk and George Sugihara. Early-warning signals for critical transitions. Nature, 2009; 461 (7260): 53 DOI: 10.1038/nature08227
 Wikipedia: Bifurcation theory
 Wikipedia:Catastrophe theory