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31.05.2007:The conference on the protection of biodiversity COP 9 ends with meagre results 
German Environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel started a new strategy to make the protection of nature profitable. Gabriel also wants to get the private sector on board to help protect biodiversity. His Environment Ministry has launched a "Business and Biodiversity" initiative which so far has the participation of 34 companies from around the world.
This strategy is in line with the Harvard Professor Roberto Mangabeira Unger who is in charge of the industrialisation of the Amazon Region. Two new roads crossing the region will be asphalted and two hydroelectric power plants will be installed in the basin of the Amazon to assist the booming industry. Unger plans to develop Brazil to an agrar-giant which can replace 5 percent of crude oil with bio-alcohol.
Sugar cane today 70,000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 265 km.
In 4 years 120,000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 347 km.
By 2025 210.000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 458 km.
This is the size of Great Britain.
Germany, buying certificates from sugar cane from Brazil will heat up the climate, will impoverish the rural population and bring an ecological catastrophe to the country.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel, announced at COP 9 that Germany would make an extra €500 million available to protect forests in the period 2009 to 2012. As of 2013, Germany will make €500 million available each year.
The money would be used to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest reserves. Norway has also pledged funds but few other industrialized countries have yet put their support behind the scheme.
Life Web was launched by Germany enabling poorer countries who are seeking funding to establish and manage conservation areas to coordinate with possible donors. Indonesia, Brazil and Kongo applied for these funds. 
At the same time Brazil, however, opposed to the establishment of a certification regime for possible ecological standards for biofuel, regarding regulations imposed from outside as an attack on their sovereignty and veto any attempts at introducing definitive rules.
An alternative could be an international cooperation to use solar energy from the Arabian deserts for the production of electricity and hydrogen as fuel for car. This reduces the pressure on the Brazilian environment caused by the spread of monocultures of soy bean and sugar cane.
The EU Project DESERTEC  and the hydrogen project “ The Arabian Desert Energy Project”  are feasible solutions which might generate revenues to be used to protect the forests without imposing commercial pressure on these regions.
 Spiegel Online: Environmentalists say that the loss of biodiversity poses a threat to human survival comparable to that of climate change. The next conference will take place in Japan in two years' time. The value of Nature: UN Conference Divided over How to Protect Biodiversity 30.05.2008.
 Life Web: Global Initiative on Protected Areas to be launched at CBD COP 9 in Bonn
 TREC Clean Power from Deserts: The DESERTEC Concept and the Studies
 Desert Energy Project: The Arabian Desert Solar Energy Consortium Proposal
31.05.2008: Organic milk is better during summer compared with conventional milk, but there is no difference when cows are kept indoor 
Gillian Butler and colleagues 2008 studied the differences in fatty acid (FA) and antioxidant profiles seasonal differences between organic, high-input, conventional, low-input, organic, and low-input non-organic milk. Lower input farming, relates to the reduced use, and possible complete elimination, of chemical-based fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides in the food supply.
The authors found that during the outdoor grazing period, milk from the organic and non-organic low-input systems had lower saturated FAs, but higher mono- and polyunsaturated FA concentrations compared with milk from the high-input system. Higher concentrations of nutritionally desirable FAs and antioxidants, conjugated linoleic and α-linolenic acids, α-tocopherol and carotenoids, and lower levels of more fatty acids like omega-6 and CLA10, which are linked to detrimental health impacts. compared with milk from conventional milk were also found.
However, high-input and low-input organic systems did not differ in composition when cows were housed. The authors concluded that milk composition is affected by production systems by mechanisms likely to be linked to the stage and length of the grazing period, and diet composition.
 Butler, Gillian; Nielsen, Jacob H; Slots, Tina; Seal, Chris; Eyre, Mick D; Sanderson, Roy; Leifert, Carlo: Fatty acid and fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations in milk from high- and low-input conventional and organic systems: seasonal variation. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. Volume 88, Number 8, June 2008 , pp. 1431-1441(11). Published online ahead of print
30.05.2008: Vienna University will ask editors to withdraw mobile telephone studies 
Despite the faked data used as basis for both articles published by Professor Hugo Rüdiger and Franz Adlkofer from the University of Vienna the authors did not withdraw the publication. Professor Wolfgang Schütz, rector of the University of Vienna will now contact the Int Arch Occup Environ Health (Springer-Verlag) and Mutation Research (Elsevier), editors of the publishing journal, and ask for their action.
The study was part of the € 3 million REFLEX study. A withdrawal of the faked publications brings serious doubts on the veracity of REFLEX. (See 25.05.2008: Faked data of two Austrian studies of mobile radiation effect force their withdrawal )
 Medizinische Universität Wien: Verdacht auf fehlerhafte Studie der ehemaligen Abteilung für Arbeitsmedizin. Rektor der Medizinischen Universität Wien fordert Autoren seiner Universität zur Rücknahme auf - Herausgeber der Publikation wird jedenfalls über den Verdacht auf wissenschaftliches Fehlverhalten informieren. 23.05.2008.
30.05.2008:Study says that excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided 
The number of complaints was higher for people using the digital (GSM) system with pulse modulated fields, than for those using the analogue (NMT) system. Our results correlate with the results observed by Sandstrom et al. 
In the present study, we found a relationship between headache, fatigue, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbances in subjects exposed to mobile phones emissions. It is advisable therefore; that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities, such as group discussion, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. The authors call for preventive measures.
 Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population Thamir Al-Khlaiwi, Sultan A. Meo. Saudi Medical Journal 2004; Vol. 25 (6): 732-736
 Sandstrom M, Wilen J, Oftedal G, Hansson MK. Mobile phone use and subjective symptoms. Comparison of symptoms experienced by users of analogue and digital mobile phones. Occup Med 2001; 51: 25-35.
30.05.2008: Illegal ephedra plant based drug used as “fat burner”linked with death in Denmark 
The Danish Medicines Agency (DMA) reports a recent death caused by the Therma Red, which is being used to loose weight and to boost performance of sportspeople. The product contains ephedrine and caffeine in extremely high concentrations. Serious reactions are expected, such as increased blood pressure and blood clotting. The DMA issued a warning of products containing ephedra and ephedrin.
Ephedrine is a stimulant and thermogenic, also known as ma huang. It is not allowed as a food or supplement ingredient in the European Union, US and other states. It caused several death.
The plant Ephedra sinica contains the alcaloids ephedrin and pseudoephedrin as active constituents.
Haller and Benowitz 2000 report adverse events related to the use of supplements containing ephedra alkaloids such as hypertension, palpitations, tachycardia, stroke, and seizures. These effects resulted in death, and permanent disability. 
Instead of using dangerous supplements exercise and low fat and low caloric diet are recommended. Instead of beer drink green tea with no sugar, or just choose sparkling mineral water as a drink at the bar.
 Danish Medicines Agency warns against the weight-loss product Therma Power 27.05.2008.
 Haller C, Benowitz N (2000). "Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids". N Engl J Med343(25): 1833-8. PMID 11117974
29.05.2008: Tomato powder reduce prostata cancer risk in animals 
Valeri Mossine and colleagues 2008 report that the greatest protective effect of tomatoes against prostate cancer comes by rehydrating tomato powder into tomato paste.
Rats which were fed with tomato paste plus FruHis, a complex carbohydrate developed 10 per cent prostate tumors, compared with 30 percent of animals receiving tomato powder alone, 25 percent receiving tomato paste alone and 60 percent in the control group.
The authors write that processing of edible plants (heating, grinding, mixing, drying, etc.) may have an effect on the nutritional value of the product, largely due to changes that occur in organic carbohydrates. The authors conclude that the interaction of FruHis carbohydrate and lycopene which develops during the dehydration process of tomato powder is responsible for the beneficial activity of tomato powder.
This study gives the tomato soups, prepared with powder from the bag, a new healthy anti-cancer image.
 Mossine, Valeri et al.: Interaction of Tomato Lycopene and Ketosamine Against Rat Prostate Tumorigenesis. Cancer Research. June 68 (11)
28.05.2008 Sunflower oil from Ukraine contaminated with mineral oil from Ukraine of no health concern 
The EFSA found heavy mineral oil contaminating sunflower oil imported from Ukraine which was dispatched to several European states.
Other contaminants (heavy metals, PCB,pesticides (OCBs, OPBs, ONBs, synthetic
pyrethroids) were measured and none were of concern based on analytical data currently
The EFSA concluded that samples of the Ukraine sunflower oil were found to contain high viscosity compounds. From the data received, no other contaminants were present in the samples. Exposure to such oil, although undesirable, would not be a public health concern.
 EFSA: Sunflower oil: contamination with mineral oil from Ukraine – Update 28.05.2008
27.05.2008: Coca-Cola will not remove sodium benzoate from majority of its products 
Coca-Cola reformulates Diet Coke but continues to use controversial sodium benzoate in Fanta and other products despite controversial two studies:
Study on sodium benzoate enforces the detrimental effects of free radicals 
Peter Piper, proposes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae petri dish test, using yeast superoxide dismutase mutants, to test oxidative stress
Using this test system, Piper found that weak organic acid food preservatives like sodium benzoate exert strong pro-oxidant action on aerobic yeast cells. and are also mutagenic toward the yeast mitochondrial genome.
The author concluded that sodium benzoate may generate oxidative stress within the epithelia of the gastrointestinal tract.
The Southampton Study  
The study links sodium benzoate linked to hyperactivity behaviour
 FoodNavigator: Sodium benzoate removed frome Diet Coke. 27.05.08
 Piper, Peter W.: Yeast superoxide dismutase mutants reveal a pro-oxidant action of weak organic acid food preservatives. Free Radic Biol Med.1999. Dec;27(11-12):1219-27. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(99)00147-1
 University of Southampton: Major study indicates a link between hyperactivity in children and certain food additives. News Release Ref: 07/99. 06 September 2007
 McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, et al: Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9 year-old children in the community a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet 2007; 370:1560-70
27.05.2008: Omega-3 enriched chocolate
Some chocolates contain roasted flax seeds, which contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an n−3 fatty acid. Studies have found evidence that ALA is related to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism is still unclear: The body converts ALA into the longer chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n−3), and it is unknown whether the protective effect against cardiac arrhythmia is exerted by ALA itself, or by these metabolic products. EPA and DHA fatty acids are readily available from fish.
To avoid oxidising of the fatty acids micro-encapsulation is used to avoid compromising odour and taste.
According to David Schardt, a nutricionist from CSPI, many foods with omega-3 claims have only mostly ALA from flax seed, which may not prevent anything. He recommends to get DHA and EPA from salmon, fish oil and algal oil capsules. 
The minimum intake of EPA and DHA 
An intake of about 500 mg of EPA+DHA per day is expected to significantly reduce risk of death from coronary heart disease in healthy adults.
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that healthy adults consume at least 2 servings of fish weekly, particularly those that contain higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids.
The AHA further recommends that individuals with known cardiovascular disease consume approximately 1 g/day of EPA and DHA and that individuals with elevated TG levels may benefit from 2 to 4 g of EPA and DHA daily, since this dose usually results in TG reduction(AHA, Kris-Etherton 2003).
Note, however, that the FDA does not recommend a dose over 3 g/day of EPA and DHA from food and dietary supplements. 
Consumer looking to improve their omega-3 intake should look at the declaration of EPA and DHA and discard ALA.
 CSPI: Omega-3 madness: Fish oil or snake oil. Stick with fish or fish oil for best heart-health benefits, says Nutrition Action.
 ISSFAL- fatty acids, lipids and health studies: ISSFAL Policy Statement 3. For cardiovascular health, a minimum intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid combined of: 500 mg/day
 American Heart Association: Fish and omega-3 fatty acids. AHA recommendation.
25.05.2008: Faked data of two Austrian studies of mobile radiation effect force their withdrawal 
According to the rector of the University of Vienna Wolfgang Schütz the data of a study published in 2005 and another from 2008 were manipulated by a coworker. The fake was discovered by outside readers of the studies and not by the publishing authors.
Elisabeth Kratochvil, being Diem here former name, compiled the faked data.
The two involved studies of the Vienna University
Diem et al 2005 
According to Diem et al 2005, cultured human and rat cells presented DNA strand breaks when exposed to intermittent and continuous radiofrequency electromagnetic fields used in mobile phones, with different specific absorption rates and different mobile-phone modulations.
The author concluded that the DNA cannot be based on thermal effects. Effects were stronger with intermitent exposure, compared with continuous exposure to the radiation.
Schwarz et al 2008 
The authors report that UMTS exposure may cause genetic alterations in human cultured fibroblastsin some but not with lymphocytes.
Doubts on the data of the studies 
Alexander Lerchl from the University of Bremen found inter-individual differences of the values compared with previously published data from the same group of researchers. He stressed that he data given in the figures and the tables reveal peculiar miscalculations and statistical oddities which give rise to concern about the origin of the reported data. These doubt leaded finally to unveil the fake of the two studies of the leading authors Hugo Rüdiger and Franz Adkofer.
The faked studies of the university Vienna were the core of REFLEX, a 3 Million Euro project of the European Commission held between 2000 and 2004. 
The EU REFLEX Project 
The Report of the European Union's REFLEX Project (Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods) was released in November, 2004. The Project studied ELF and RF exposures to various cell types. Prof. Dr. Franz Adlkofer was project coordinator.
Mobile phone radiation effects on human health 
Michael Kundi comments data of thermal, nonthermal and microthermic effects of mobile phone radiation. Kundi describes genetic damages caused by low radiation of mobile phones.The author says that there are sufficient data from studies available to support precautionary measures promulgated by the Austrian Ministry for Health and Women :
Dr. Gerd Oberfeld , expert for mobile phone radiation and WLAN radiation of the Austrian government presented a study which underlines serious health concerns related to these radiations.
Margit Kropik from T-Mobile Austria presented critics on the methodology used in this study.
According to Heinz Münzer, director of the infrastructure of Mobilkom Austria, the study is based on untrue informations related to facts on network used in the region.
 Spiegel Online: Forschungsschwindel: Studien über Gefahren der Handystrahlung gefälscht
 Diem et al 2005
Diem, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Claudia; Adlkofer; Franz; Jahn, Oswald; Rüdiger, Hugo: Nonthermal DNA breakage by mobile phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro. Mutation Researche/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. Volume 583, Isue 2, 6 June 2005, Pages 178-183. Doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2005.03.006 Received 30 May 2003; revised; 23 March 2005. Available online 24 May 2005
 Adlkofer et al 2008
Claudia Schwarz, Elisabeth Kratochvil, Alexander Pilger, Niels Kuster, Franz Adlkofer, Hugo W. Rüdiger: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS, 1,950 MHz) induced genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in Lymphocytes. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg ISBN 0340-0131 (Print) 1432-1246 (Online).Doi: 10.1007/s00420-008-0305-5
 Lerchl, Alexander: Letter to the Editor: Comments on “Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS, 1,950 MHz) induce genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in lymphocytes” by Schwarz et al. (Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2008: doi 10.1007/s00420-008-0305-5).
 EU-funded QLK4-CT-1999-01574 / REFLEX: Publications resulting from the project
 Verum, Stiftung für Verhalten und Umwelt: REFLEX: Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Energy Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods. A project funded by the EU under the programme "Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources", Key Action 4 "Environment and Health": QLK4-CT-1999-01574
 Michael Kundi: Gesundheitliche Auswirkungen von Mobiltelephonen. Medical University Vienna, Environmental Hygiene Institut
 Heise Online: Streit um Krebsstudie von Salzburger Mobilfunkgegner. 25.05.2008
 Salzburger Land: Elektrosmog und Gesundheit.
25.05.2008: French bill sets tough penalties protecting GM crops 
On the 22.05.2008 the French parliament passed a bill on general principle for the freedom to produce and consume GM organisms as long as there is no harm to public health or to the environment. However, it does not say how the level of risk to public health will be determined. Long-term health risks on GM exposure are still unknown. 
According to the bill the nature and location of GM cultivation will be recorded in a national register. The distance between GM crops and conventional crops will be dependent on the type of plant. Environmentalists say the bill is to weak to prevent cross contamination of conventional crops.
The bill sets tough penalties for GM sabotage
Sabotage of the GM plantations will be severely punished with a two year jail term and a fine of €75,000 for destroying GM crops and more severe penalties if the destroyed crops were intended for research.
The new bill will not end the ban on GM crops in France, however, observers say it is a step back towards GM acceptance. France has the highest increase of GM cultivation in Europe.
 FoodNavigator: French GM bill lays policy foundations. 23.05.2008
 France Nature Environment: Projet de Loi OGM
25.05.2008: Food colours and preservative should be eliminated despite all-clear of EFSA 
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and food additives
The Southampton study found that a mix of food colours such as sunset yellow (E110), tartrazine (E102), carmoisine (E122), ponceau 4R (E124) quinoline yellow (E104), allura red (E129) and sodium benzoate (E210). exacerbate hyperactive behaviour in children at least up to middle childhood.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) conducted a review of the Southampton study, as well as other studies and meta-analyses on additives and hyperactivity. EFSA also concluded that the Southampton study gave no basis for changing acceptable daily intakes (ADI) of food additives.
EFSA stresses that hyperactivity results from a variety of social and biological causes, focusing on dietary strategy eliminating food additives alone may detract from the provision of adequate treatment.
Professor Kemp position
Despite all controversies Professor Andrew Kemp writes that behavioural therapy is still considered necessary for adequate treatment even though there is less evidence for its efficacy than there is for eliminating food additives. He calls not to neglect the dietary factors. Cutting out colours and preservatives from the diets of hyperactive children should be standard part of the treatment of ADHD.
 Kemp, Andrew: Editorial: Food additives and hyperactivity. British Medical Journal 2008; 336:1144 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39582.375336.BE
24.05.2008: Nutrition information front of pack needed 
Consumer associations fight for a nutrition label on front on pack to guide the buyer in its choice. This is most important for segment of beverages cereals, dairy products an cookies for children, where extreme high sugar contents are responsible for growing obesity.
The different labelling proposals
Labelling per serving and traffic lights
Horst Seehoven, German Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, is in favour of the declaration of the content in one serving. Consumer organisations reject this proposal alleging that food producers use unrealistic low servings sizes, such as one pizza considered to be two servings. The serving of fish ready to eat meal Fish is being labelled as 150 g . Beverages like Fanta, Cola and other fruit flavoured drinks are calculated on servings of 250 ml.
They also use a 2000 calorie diet as a daily energy whereas a daily requirement of 1.700 calories is more appropriate for the normal population.
The traffic lights such as proposed by the UK FSA are being opposed by Seehover alleging that products,normally high in fat would be discriminated. Consumer associations say that the minister protects the agrar-industry .
Nutrition labelling is harmonised throughout the European Union. It is optional, but becomes compulsory if a nutrition claim appears on the label or in advertising.
The European Commission issued a proposal for a new Food Information Regulation on 4 February 2008. This proposal follows an EU-wide review of both general food and nutrition labelling legislation, which began in 2004. This regulation will introduce the mandatory labelling of nutrients on the front of pack. 
Other regulations on nutrition facts.
Council Directive 90/496/EEC of 24 September 1990 on nutrition labelling rules of foodstuffs and amendments.
In the U.S., the nutritional facts label lists the percentage supplied required in one day of human nutrients based on the average 2000 calorie a day diet. With certain exceptions, such as foods meant for babies, the following Daily Values are used (CFR 101.9(c)8(iv)). These are called Reference Daily Intake values and were originally based on the highest 1968 Recommended Dietary Allowances for each nutrient
Food products sold in Mexico use the NOM-051-SCFI-1994 "Información nutrimental" product labelling standard (which is very similar to "Nutrition Facts" in the U.S.)
The traffic light proposal is being supported by the UK Food Standards Agency
In Canada, a standardized "Nutrition Facts" label was introduced as part of regulations passed in 2003, and became mandatory for most prepackaged food products on December 12, 2005. (Smaller businesses were given until December 12, 2007 to make the information available.)
 Spiegel Online: Nährwertkennzeichnung: Seehofer will Farbe - aber nur eine 23.05.2008
 Europa, Summaries of Legislation: SCADPlus: Nutrition Labelling
 Europa: Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/labellingnutrition/foodlabelling/publications/proposal_regulation_ep_council.pdf
 21 CFR 101.9 Labelling regulation in the U.S.
 Official Mexican Standard NOM-051-SCFI-1994, General Specifications for Labelling Prepackaged Foods and Nonalcoholic Beverages
 Food Standards Agency: Traffic light labels
 Canada: Nutrition Labelling
23.05.2008:Biosaline Agriculture and aquaculture in the West Asia and North Africa (WANA) region
West Asia and North Africa (WANA) region has extensive desert areas and high salinity of the soil due to the invasion of sea water and the irrigation with saline water. Recovering unproductive salty areas with halophyte plants may help food security in these regions.
The Inter-Islamic Network for Biosaline Agriculture INBA, together with International Center for Biosaline Agriculture ICBA promote biosaline agriculture coordinates the researche on biosaline agriculture and the development of a database on this subject.
Halophyte plants 
A halophyte plants grows where it is affected by salinity in the root area or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs, and seashores. An example of a halophyte is the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass). Relatively few plant species are halophytes - perhaps only 2% of all plant species. The large majority of plant species are "glycophytes," and are damaged fairly easily by salinity. 
One quantitative measure of salt tolerance is the "total dissolved solids" in irrigation water that a plant can tolerate. Sea water typically contains 40 grams per liter (g/l) of dissolved salts. Beans and rice can tolerate about 1-3 g/l, and are considered glycophytes (as are most crop plants). At the other extreme, Salicornia bigalovii (dwarf glasswort) grows well at 70 g/l of dissolved solids, and is a promising halophyte for use as a crop. Plants such as barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) can tolerate about 5 g/l, and can be considered as marginal halophytes.
Seed collection of halophytes for the WANA region 
ICBA maintains a collection of seeds of salt-tolerant grasses, vegetables. It also develops sustainable water management systems to irrigate food and forage crops and ornamental plants with marginal and saline water. The collection comprises seeds from other regions such as fodder beet, brassica/rape from Denmark and indigenous plant species from the Arabian Peninsula. Moreover, seeds will be produced in sufficient quantity for distribution among partner countries in the
WANA region for evaluation and trials.
Other plants of interest for the region are sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)
ICBA says that the saltbush Atriplex and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) have significant potential for saline environment, including . Seeds from promising varieties were multiplied. Wheat (triticum aestivum) salt-resistant seeds from Oman were planted for seed multiplication.
The center newly acquired germplasm of sunflower, canola, guar, pigeonpea, cowpea and chickpea, quinoa, barnyard millet, fodder beet, hyacinth bean, sorghum, pearl millet barley and lupine.
Salinity-tolerant sorghum and pearl millet and barley varieties for saline lands
Large areas are potentially vulnerable and could easily be damaged by salinization through irrigation. The development of salt-tolerant crop varieties is a cost-effective option for the management of salt-affected lands. Both pearl millet and sorghum are two main fodder crops of the WANA region that can play a significant role in filling gaps in farm productivity and crop-livestock systems.
Pearl millet and sorghum were evaluated under field conditions at three salinity levels (EC 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1) at ICBA , in Oman, India , Iran, and Egypt. Pearl millet and sorghum are the fifth
and sixth most important cereal crops worldwide.
Drip irrigation on raised beds in Bangladesh
This technology is being proposed by researchers of ICBA for Bangladesh to bring salt-affected lands estimated at 0.88 million hectares under cultivation.
During the driest months of March and April, salinity problems resulting from seawater intrusion are acute and no cultivation is possible. Cash crops like tomato, watermelon, cucumber and chili may, however, be cultivated using the drip irrigation on raised mulch beds technology. This permits the leaching of salts from the root zone and provides a fourfold crop compared with traditional practices.
ICBA says that rainwater harvesting provides a reliable source of irrigation water during the dry season. The ponds where water is stored can also be used for aquaculture.
Return Water from Prawn farm in Saudi Arabia
The National Prawn Company NPC located on the Red Sea coast in Al-Laith, about 450 km from Jeddah. has an annual production of 10,000 tons.
Seawater is pumped to the shrimp ponds. The return water contains a significant load of nutrients and organic residue from the prawn farming activities, is being used in agricultural production as well as coastal rehabilitation. A nearby lagoon has potential for rehabilitation with local mangrove species (Avicennia marina) along the inner shores.
The return seawater for the production of halophytes for forage, environmental beautification, biomass energy and organic fertilizers. Further mangrove plantation will be expanded at the barrier island and the return water canal.
ICBA scientists planted seedlings in the field, for use mainly as windbreaks. Conocarpus and Salvadora spp. were sufficiently sturdy to protect other species inside the area. Mangrove seeds collected from the coastal plantations were acclimatized under different salinity conditions and currently kept in the shallow water of the lagoon at high salinity levels.
Mangroves species 
According to ICBA around 42 per cent of mangroves grow in South and South East Asia, 27 per cent in Americas, 16 per cent in West Africa, 10 per cent in Australia, 6 per cent in East Africa and the Middle East. Avicennia marina is the only native mangrove species growing in the UAE.
Forage production systems using nonconventional salt-tolerant grasses and highly saline water
A long-term field studies on sustainable and economically feasible forage production systems using nonconventional salt-tolerant grasses and highly saline water were performed. The researchers from ICBA found two highly salt-tolerant grass species, Sporobolus virginicus and Distichlis spicata suitable as forage production systems.
The authors concluded that maximum dry matter yield is achieved at higher levels of fertilizer and irrigation in Distichlis and by high levels of fertilizer and medium levels of irrigation in Sporobolus. Both plants were found to be extremely productive under saline irrigation presenting good quality of the forage nearly comparable to green barley.
Distichlis can be irrigated with the salinity equivalent of seawater, and Sporobolus presents a high growth at high salinity level.
Atriplex species under high salinity conditions
Atriplex lentiformis, A. nummularia and A. halimus are salt tolerance and value are high-protein
animal feed. However, animals do not thrive if fed solely on Atriplex because it contains high concentrations of mineral salts. A 50:50 mixture of salt-tolerant Atriplex shrubs and grasses such as Sporobolus can provide a balanced diet, and lead to growth comparable to that of Rhodes grass.
Recovering salinity damaged land
A farm which had been abandoned due to high salinity damage was recovered with highly salt-tolerant plants and halophytes in 2006 using grasses and shrubs such as Sporobolus, Distichlis and Atriplex .
Cenchrus ciliaris (buffelgrass) and fodder beet were among the few non-halophytic species which gre w there. An African Cenchrus ciliaris variety showed excellent growth under Irrigation water salinity reaching up to EC 20-22 dS m-1.
Development of sustainable salt-tolerant forages for sheep and goat production
This project aims at improving the sustainability of sheep and goat production systems by increasing the availability of forage resources through the introduction of salt-tolerant forages.
Halophytic grasses: Sporobolus virginicus, Distichlis spicata, Paspalum and Kallar grass, all provided by ICBA, showed excellent growth under different salinity treatments.
Shrubs and trees: Three shrubs (Atriplex lentiformis, A. nummularia and A. halimus) and one tree species (Acacia ampliceps) showed excellent growth under salinity treatment.
Fodder beet. Varieties Turbo, Adagio and Abando showed the highest yield, despite high salinity level.
Halophytes that can flourish under seawater irrigation have huge potential in many coastal regions. NyPa grass (Distichlis spicata var.Yensen 4a) developed by NyPa International is one such halophyte. It can be grown with seawater and has a good forage/forage/fodder value. The variety is currently marketed internationally as NyPa Forage.
ICBA and NyPa signed an MoU to test the germplasm for its growth and forage potential in the coastal conditions - both arid and humid - of the Middle East. Using seawater for irrigation, NyPa Forage has proved to be successful and feasible, providing an excellent opportunity for converting barren coastal areas into forage production areas.
Water logging is also not an issue with NyPa Forage due to specialised tissue running the length of the root system, which allows oxygen from the leaves to be transported down to the roots, allowing them to grow in waterlogged conditions, the same mechanism which allows rice to grow in waterlogged conditions. It has a deep roots system, that has been traced down to 1.5m, which allows it to access the watertable. Currently NyPa Forage is being assessed across Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. 
Agroforestry trial using Acacia ampliceps, Sporobolus arabicus and Paspalum vaginatum at different salinity levels
An agroforestry system includes production of tree species along with other plants so that the species benefit each other through nutrient and water management. Sporobolus (foreground) and Acacia (background) have proved complementary crops in agroforestry trials.
Among imported cultivars, Um-Al-Hamam showed the weakest performance and could not survive at any salinity levels. Among other varieties, Ajwat-ul-Madinah, Nabatat Saif, Nabatat Sultan and Sukkari showed best growth indicators. Average fruit production of the imported varieties was lower than the local varieties. Ajwat-ul- Madinah, Rhothan and Sukkari showed best performance among the varieties tested.
 ICBA. 2007. Annual Report 2006 (1426-27H). International Center for Biosaline
Agriculture, Dubai, UAE.
 Wikipedia: Halophyte
 UAE interact: Experts call to protect mangroves posted on 24/12/2001
 What is NyPa Forage?
21.05.2008: Carbon nanotubes asbestos-like pathogenicity in Mice 
According to Craig Poland and colleagues 2008, carbon nanotubes are found to have needle-like fibre shape, similar to asbestos. Researchers fear that carbon nanotubes may increase the risk of mesothelioma, a lung cancer which was found after exposure to asbestos. In a mice study, long multiwalled carbon nanotubes resulted in asbestos-like pathogenic reactions known as granulomas.
The authors stress that carbon nanotubes, like those used for the study, are widely used in many products alleging that they are no mare hazardous than graphite. The autors call for further research great caution before marketing those products to avoid long-term harm.
Mesothelioma: is a cancer of the mesothelium, the protective sac that covers most of the body's
internal organs. It can involve lining of lungs, heart, gut. Mesothelioma is associated with exposure to asbestos. It is not caused by cigarette smokin. It is fatal, and average survival is about 18 months.
Many naturally occurring and man-made fibers can induce mesothelioma, lung cancer and/or pulmonary fibrosis. According to Rick Kelly factors of toxicity are the diameter below 1000 nm, length over 5000 nm , biopersistance by low solubility and a poor pulmonary clearence. 
 Poland, Craig; Duffin, A. Rodger; Kinloch, Ian; Maynard, Andrew; Wallace, William A. H.; Seaton, Anthony; Stone, Vicki; Brown, Simon; MacNee, William; Donaldson, Ken: Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study. Nature Nanotechnology. Published online: 20 May 2008 | :10.1038/nnano.2008.111
 Kelly, Rick: What Do We Know About The Potential Toxicity of Inhaled Carbon Nanotubes?
Materials Sciences Division and The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
20.05.2008: Special foods "suitable for diabetics" are superfluous 
According to Professor Dr. Dr. Andreas Hensel, President of the German BfR the classic strict diet with no sugar and instructions to keep an exact tally of bread units (BE) for diabetics are not necessary.
New scientific findings reveal that, in case of diabetes, there is no need to impose a strict control of sugar in the diet or to switch to foods with sugar substitutes, for instance fructose. Instead, diabetics should follow the nutrition recommendations for the population at large.
The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR recommends the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables because of their content of antioxidants and high level of roughage. Special diabetic foods with sugar substitutes such as fructose, are not needed. There is no need for special guidelines for diabetic foods. Extended, uniform nutrition labelling on packaged foods, instead, should make it easier for diabetics to make their selection.
The BfR stresses that diabetes is not just a “sugar disease”. Besides normal blood sugar levels, optimised blood fat levels, normal blood pressure and normal body weight must be observed in the treatment of diabetes. They can best be achieved by a diet that is rich in roughage and vitamins. Fruit, vegetables, salad, pulses and wholemeal products should feature in the daily diet of diabetics. Fatty sausage and cheese varieties, chocolate, cakes and crisps should be avoided. Diabetics should preferably drink low fat dairy products and use oil instead of butter for cooking. Their diet should be low in table salt. Alcohol should be consumed in moderation, for instance one to two glasses of wine a day, says the BfR.
Professor Hensel says that special foods presented and labelled as “suitable for diabetics” are not necessary. This is particularly true as labelling fails to fulfil its purpose. There are many other foods which are suitable for diabetics but which are not labelled as such.
The German Diabetic Association DDG says that foods labelled as ” suitable for diabetics” or “diabetics-product” are superfluous and harmful. Such labelling may induce diabetics to believe they may eat these foods unboundedly. Many of the are built on saturated fats which increase obesity problems. 
German Regulation on Dietetic Foods 
The German diet regulation from 2005, with an update in January 2008 rules, among others, foods for persons with glucose metabolic disorders (Diabetics). Foods may be labelled as “ Suitable for diabetics” when :
1- Fat and alcohol level is not higher that traditional foods.
2 - Glucose, invertsugar, dissacharides, maltodextrin and glucose syrup is not used, small amouts are are allowed when used in blends with sweeteners or as carrier of other ingredients. On their place fructose and artificial sweeteners are used.
The BfR recommends uniform nutrition labelling
The BfR calls for an extended, uniform nutrition labelling with not only of calorific value, proteins, carbohydrates and fat but also of total sugar content, saturated fatty acids, roughage, sodium and table salt on packaged foods would make it easier for diabetics and all consumers to select suitable products.
 Federal Institut for Risc Assessment: Diabetics do not need any special foods
BfR, therefore, recommends uniform nutrition labelling 10/2008, 05.05.2008
 Deutsche Diabetiker Gesellschaft: Kennzeichnung von Diabetiker-Lebensmitteln muss sich ändern
 Verordnung über diätetische Lebensmittel vom 28.04.2005 (BGBl. I S. 1161), zuletzt geändert durch Art. 5 der VO vom 30.01.2008 (BGBl. I S. 132)
20.05.2008:Artificial sweeteners promote weight gain 
Several studies claim that artificial non-caloric and low-caloric sweeteners promote weight gain as they disrupt the calorie prediction of the body and its capability to react accordingly to the nutritional intake. According to Tracy Hampton low-calorie sweeteners may promote weight gain.
Bellisle, Drewnowsku, 2007 in a review of studies about the effect of low-calorie sweeteners presented inconclusive results. 
Non-caloric sweetener disrupts the ability of the body to predict calorie intake 
Guido K.W. Frank and colleagues found that brain response distinguishes the caloric from the non-caloric sweetener, however, the conscious mind could not notice the caloric difference.
Sugar is a caloric predictor regulating energy balance, artificial sweeteners do not 
According to Swithers and Davidson 2008 sweet taste of sugar is a predictor of the caloric or nutritive consequences of eating. It evokes physiological responses that underlie tight regulation. The authors say that non-caloric sweeteners disrupt the validity as a caloric predictor, and contribute to deficits in the regulation of energy.
They concluded that artificial sweeteners may lead to increased body weight and obesity by interfering with positive energy balance through increased food intake and/or diminished energy expenditure.
Non-caloric sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame and sucralose and low-caloric sweeteners such as sorbitol, mannitol and maltitol, should be avoided in weight reduction diets. Intensive sweet tasting foods promote weight gain. These recent findings support general nutritional rules which call for a change of the nutritional habits. Changing from sweetened artificial flavoured foods and beverages to fruits, vegetables and low fat foods together with exercise will improve weight regulation and general health condition.
 Tracy Hampton: Sugar substitutes linked to weight gain. Journal of the American Medical Association. May 14 2008, Volume 299, 2137-2138. No 18, doi: 10:1001/jama.299.18.2137
 Bellisle, F.; Drewnowski, A.: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Volume 61, Pages 691-700, doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602649
Intense sweeteners, energy intake and the control of body weight
 Frank, Guido K.; Oberndorfer, Tyson A.; Simmons, Alan N.; Paulus, Martin P.; Fudge, Julie L.; Yang, Tony T.; Kaye, Walter H.: Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener.
Neurimage 2008; 39(4): 1559-1569
 Swithers, Susan E.; Davidson, Terry L.: A Role for Sweet Taste: Calorie Predictive Relations in Energy Regulation by RatsBehavioral Neuroscience. February 2008, Volume 122, Number 1, 161–173 doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.00.0.000
18.05.2008 COP 9 Action: Bio Alcohol from Brazil destroys the rain forest
The 9th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will take place from 19 to 30 May 2008 in Bonn. The CBD strengthens the principle under international law that countries have sovereign rights over their biological resources, but at the same time stressing the common interest of mankind in conserving and using these resources in a sustainable way.
By 2025 the area covered by the monoculture of sugar cane will have the size of Great Britain.
Germany together with USA will dispel concerns about these monocultures driven by interests of the car makers and soy bean corporations. Minister Gabriel, an ardently defender of bio alcohol, heading COP 9, will have to explain how a biodiversity can be achieved in the sugar cane region.
The German energy politic presently is at a dead end. Heavy reaction of the population arise against new coal power plants and car makers are unwilling to reduce fuel consumption. There is no consistent plan to provide enough clean electricity and clean fuel for cars. On the other side, a nuclear power plant alliance between France and Italy leave Germany outside of energy talks.
Brazil bio alcohol heavily supported by German environment Minister Gabriel:
Sugar cane today 70,000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 265 km.
In 4 years 120,000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 347 km.
By 2025 210.000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 458 km.
This is the size of Great Britain.
Germany, buying certificates from sugar cane from Brazil will heat up the climate, will impoverish the rural population and bring an ecological catastrophe to the country.
18.05.2008: Sweet potato starches and their use 
Lockwood, King and Labonte studied the starch of white- and orange-fleshed Beauregard sweet potato and the effects of amino acid additives, aspartic acid, leucine, lysine, and methionine, on their pasting and thermal characteristics.
The authors found that starch from orange-fleshed sweet potato could easier be cooked, had a lower retrogradation and stability during heating than the white-fleshed sweet potato starch.
The addition of charged amino acids, aspartic acid and lysine, altered pasting characteristics of the 2 starches more than the neutral amino acids, leucine and methionine.
The positively-charged amino acid, lysine and negatively charged aspartic acid, decreased the viscosity of starch paste of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes improving the cooking time.
Lysine increased the stability of orange-fleshed sweet potato starch during cooking.
Aspartic acid had similar effects on both starches, reduced the cooking stability and lowered retrogradation.
The authors concluded that the addition amino acids can be used to alter properties of sweet potato starches can be altered. Blends of sweet potato starches with amino acids may avoid the use of modified starches such as oxidyzed starches, phosphate starches, or acetylated starches.
 Lockwood, S.; King, J.M.; Labonte, D.R.: Altering Pasting Characteristics of Sweet Potato Starches through Amino Acid Additives. Journal of Food Science. Published online ahead of print, 13 May 2008, doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00755.x
17.05.2008: The pesticide clothianidin is responsible for dying of German bees at the Rhine valley
The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BVL has stopped the use of the insecticide PONCHO with the chemical clothianidin widely used to fight the corn borer, following analyses of dead honeybees which were positive for the insecticide. The use of clothianidin to treat corn seed and rape seed was stopped by the BVL on 16.05.2008.
According to the German Minister of Agriculture Peter Haug clothianidin plays an important role in the death of bees. 
The Julius-Kühn Institute, the federal research institute for cultivated plants confirmed the presence of clothianidine in all dead bees which were examined. Experts say that special seed pneumatic machines loosened the pesticide from the corn seeds during sawing. This may be the way the pesticide was liberated and then spread by the local wind. The Institute says that it is unclear wether honey of the region is contaminated or not with the pesticide which is extreme water soluble. 
The stopped pesticides
The trademarks of the chlothianidin containing products are: 
|Trademark||BVL Licence Number|
|Cruiser 350 FS||4914-00|
 Spiegel Online: Bienensterben im Rheintal Behörde nimmt Insektengift vom Markt. 17.05.08
 Julius-Kühn Institut: Mit Clothianidin gebeiztes Saatgut ist nach Untersuchungen des Julius Kühn-Instituts Ursache für aktuelle Bienenschäden in Baden-Württemberg. Dr. Gerlinde Nachtigall, Pressestelle 16.05.2008
 BVL: BVL ordnet das Ruhen der Zulassung für Saatgutbehandlungsmittel an. 16.05.2008
17.05.2008 Green tea catechin Polyphenols reduces oxidative stress in sleep-disordered breathing 
Obstructive sleep apnea is a breathing problems during sleep where soft tissue in the rear of the throat collapses and closes during sleep increasing risk of oxidative stress and changes in the brain tissue in areas involved in learning and memory. This sleep-disordered breathing is characterised by intermittent hypoxia which impairs spatial learning and increases NADPH oxidase activity and oxidative stress in rodents. 
Isabel C. Burckhardt and colleagues 2008 studied the effect of oral supplements of green tea-derived polyphenols to reduce the neural susceptibility to intermittent hypoxia during sleep in rodents.
The authors write that green tea catechin polyphenols (GTPs) may attenuate intermittent hypoxia-induced neurobehavioral deficits by reducing intermittent hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase expression, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation.
Following the results of their study the authors conclude that oral GTP attenuates intermittent hypoxia-induced spatial learning deficits and mitigates intermittent hypoxia-induced oxidative stress through multiple beneficial effects on oxidant pathways.
The authors suggest further studies on the therapeutic role of green tea catechin polyphenols in sleep-disordered breathing to reduce oxidative processes underlying neurocognitive deficits associated with these sleep disorders.
Habitual snoring are also associated with impair of neurocognitive functions 
Michael S. Urschitz and colleagues found in 2003 that habitual snoring (i.e., snoring frequently or always) was associated with poor academic performance in these primary school children. This was only partially related to intermittent hypoxia. Urschitz concluded that primary snoring and/or upper airway resistance syndrome rather than obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome were the cause cognitive impairments. The authors stress that habitual snoring (i.e., snoring frequently or always) without intermittent hypoxia, up to now largely considered benign, may impair neurocognitive functioning in children and, thereby, their performance at school.
The findings of Urschitz and colleagues extend the possible potential benefits of green tea polyphenols also to habitual snoring.
 Burckhardt, Isabel C.; Gozal, David; Dayyat, Ehab; Cheng, Yu; Li, Richard C.; Goldbart, Aviv D.; Row, Barry W.:Green Tea Catechin Polyphenols Attenuate Behavioral and Oxidative Responses to Intermittent Hypoxia. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 177. pp. 1135-1141, (2008) doi: 10.1164/rccm.200701-110OC
 Wikipedia: Sleep apnea
 Urschitz, Michael S.; Guenther, Anke; Eggebrecht, Esther; Wolff, Judith; Urschitz-Duprat, Pilar M.; Schlaud, Martin; Poets, Christian F.: Snoring, intermittent hypoxia and academic performance in primary school children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Aug 15, 2003. FindArticles.com. 17 May. 2008.
16.05.2008: Enterolactone, a metabolite of Ligan, reduces the proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro 
According to Marc J. McCann and colleagues 2008 ecological data suggest that a long-term diet high in plant material rich in biologically active compounds, such as the lignans, can significantly influence the development of prostate cancer. Ligan is metabilised by gut bacteria to enterolactone. The authors performed an in vitro study which suggests that the antiproliferative activity of enterolactone of the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line in vitro is a consequence of altered expression of cell cycle associated genes. According to the authors this study provides evidence for the antiproliferative properties of a pure lignan in prostate cancer.
 McCann, Mark J.; Gill, Chris I. R.; Linton, Trevor; Berrar, D.; McGlynn, Hugh; Rowland, Ian R.:Enterolactone restricts the proliferation of the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line in vitro. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published online ahead of print, 8 April 2008, doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700052
16.05.2008: Supercritical CO2 extraction for omega-3 fatty acids
Fish oil supercritical fractioning 
Ana Paula Antunes Corrêa and colleagues 2008 verified the possibility of using supercritical CO2 to concentrate polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in the form of natural fish oil. The authors found that 7.8 MPa and 301.15 K were the best oil fractioning conditions. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) could not be fractionalized.
Omega-3 fatty acids supplements obtained by supercritical extraction 
Espinosa and colleagues 2008 studied the thermodynamics, the simulation and the optimization of supercritical extraction of fish oil fatty acid ethyl esters with ethane as alternative solvent to carbon dioxide for the production of pharmaceutical grade concentrates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA) esters, which are the most valuable omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid esters. The study included ethane-ester interaction parameters.
The authors found a higher solubility of fatty acid ethyl esters in ethane, as well as a slightly better selectivity to EPA and DHA.
 Ana Paula Antunes Corrêa, Camila Arantes Peixoto, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves, Fernando Antonio Cabral: Fractionation of fish oil with supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 88, Issue 3, October 2008 , Pages 381-387
 Espinosa, S.; Diaz, M.S.; Brignole, E.A. : Food additives obtained by supercritical extraction from natural sources. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Volume 45, Issue 2, June 2008, Pages 213-219
15.05.2008: Getting prepared for the worst 
The rain forest defender Marina Silva resigned on 13. May as Brazil's environment minister , alleging she lacked the necessary political support to protect the Amazon.
Marina Silva in talks with the German environment Minister Gabriel played down the environment pressure on the Amazon. Based on the affirmations of Marina Silva Minister Gabriel prevaled Chancellor Merkel on signing the alcohol deal which will boost the cut down of the Amazon forest.
Days after meeting the German Minister Marina Silva noted that their affirmation were a fake and could not be pushed through. The expansion of sugar cane and soy will inexorably clear the rain tree forest. This leaves German politicians before the fait accompli of a deal which encourages environment wreckful Brazilian project to replace 5 percent of total fossil fuel with alcohol.
Merkel and Lula have agreed to cooperate on the new plan for the sustainable development of the Amazon known as PAS which had been prepared by Marina Silva. Lula, however,gave PAS to the minister for strategic affairs, Roberto Mangabeira Unger. This was the reason of Marina´s resign.
Unger forces a settlement of the region, to avoid an invasion from abroad using billions to build industry and infrastructure in the Amazon region with strategies from the drawing board.
Unger plans the economic development of the Amazon region to make Brazil an economic and political superpower.
It was an easy job for the professor of Harvard to bring the humble environmentalist Marina Silva to resign. It is, however, amazing to see the German Minister Gabriel and the German Chancellor Merkel to be so easily deceived by this Brazilian agrarian expansion politic.
 Spiegel Online: Merkel in Brazil: German Chancellor meets with ´Sheikh Lula´. 15.05.2008.
15.05.2008: Dietary nitrate and oral bacteria protects the stomach against gastric ulcers
Nitrates are widely overused as fertilisers in intensive agriculture. A broad literature
referes nitrates as cancirogene when they are reduced in the human body to nitite. High nitrate in vegetables and tap water were recognised as a result of excessive use of fertiliser. Organic food is keen to avoid chemical fertiliser such as nitrates.
Joel Petersson in a doctoral thesis states, however, that nitrate intake is not hazardous, but instead has a direct role in regulating gastric homeostasis, and together with the bacterial flora colonizing the tongue is essential for preventing pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.
According to Petersson the human stomach normally contains high levels of bioactive nitric oxide (NO). This NO derives from salivary nitrate (NO3-) that is converted to nitrite (NO2-) by oral bacteria and thereafter non-enzymatically reduced in the acidic gastric lumen to NO.
NO produced in the gastric lumen after nitrate ingestion increased gastric mucosal blood flow and the thickness of the firmly adherent mucus layer in the stomach. The blood flow and mucus layer are essential defence mechanisms that protect the mucosa from luminal acid and noxious agents, says Petersson.
The author stresses that frequent anti-bacterial mouthwash may eliminate beneficial flora that may be important to gastrointestinal health. This warnings comes at a time when antibacterial mouthwashes have become more and more common, decreasing the protective levels of nitric oxide. Petersson stresses that nitrate-rich fruit and vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, radishes and beetroot have a positive affect on the stomach by activating the mucous membranes' own protective mechanisms, thus reducing the risk of problems such as gastric ulcers.
Joel Petersson concludes that nitrate additives in food protect against both gastric ulcers and the minor damage that often occurs in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs.
 Petersson, Joel (2008). Nitrate, Nitrite and Nitric Oxide in Gastric Mucosal Defense. Uppsala: Uppsala University, Interfaculty Units, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. 16.04.2008
14.05.2008 Veterinary medicine residues in eggs and poultry meat
Nicarbazin in eggs 
According to a report from the UK Food Standards Agency into the possible causes of nicarbazin residues in chicken. Nicarbazin is a medicated feed additive used to treat a debilitating poultry disease called coccidiosis.
Nicarbazin is a coccidiostat used to treat a protozoan disease, coccidiosis, that can be debilitating or even fatal to poultry. It is used as a feed additive to control the disease at a critical period of the birds’ lives but should not be used within five days of the birds’ slaughter. This ensures no appreciable residues of it remain in chicken for human consumption. It is combined in equal amounts with another coccidiostat, narasin, in the only UK-licensed product that contains nicarbazin, Maxiban.
Residues can be found in poultry meat but are more common in poultry liver. Neither is a significant food safety risk at the levels found, but can be avoided with good farm practice.
A UK action level for residues has been set at 200 μg/kg based on international Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) considerations. Residues over 1000 μg/kg are investigated on-farm by Animal Health, as this amount suggests a possible failing in feed management. This recent investigation considered all detectable residues, including those below 200 μg/kg, which greatly increased the amount of data available to assess risk factors.
Nicarbazin application as an infertility agent 
Nicarbazin was tested in 2004 in field studies on its efficacy to support its registration by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a reproductive control agent for Canada geese. As a reproductive inhibitor for Canada geese in baits with contraceptive doses it reduces hatchability of eggs about 51 per cent. This is intended to reduce the population of at airports and resorts
Nicarbazin testing 
According to Andrew Cannavan and colleagues 1999 nicarbazin is a mixture of 4,6-dimethyl-2-hydroxypyrimidine (DMHP) and 4,4A-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) It is licensed for use as a feed additive, at concentrations of 100–125 mg kg, in broiler chickens up to a maximum age of 28 days. The treatment must be withdrawn for at least 9 days prior to slaughter. Nicarbazin is not licensed for use in commercial egg-laying chickens in the UK, and consequently eggs should be free from nicarbazin residues. A joint FAO/ WHO Expert Committee recommended the use of DNC alone as the marker residue for nicarbazin, and fixed a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 200 mg kg21 in broiler chicken tissues.
Cross-contamination of feed of mill production lines can cause unwanted residues in eggs and broiler chickens.
The authors describe a method for the determination of nicarbazin in feeds using liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS).
Testing method of Eggs and meat 
Huet and colleagues 2005 write that accidental cross-contamination of feed can lead to residues of these compounds in eggs and/or muscle. They developed an ELISA method to screen for halofuginone and for dinitrocarbanilide (marker residue for nicarbazin) in eggs and meat.
Halofuginone hydrobromide in chicken and turkeys 
Halofuginone hydrobromide is a non-ionophoric plant-derived quinazolinone compound that is authorised as a coccidiostat feed additive for use in chickens for fattening, chickens reared for laying up to 16 weeks of age, and turkeys up to 12 weeks of age at a minimum-maximum concentration of 2-3 mg/kg in complete feed (Regulation (EC) No 2004/C 50/01). Despite the requirements set for feed business operators in Regulation (EC) No 183/2005, it is generally acknowledged that under practical conditions during the production of mixed feeds, a certain percentage of a feed batch remains in the production circuit and these residual amounts can contaminate the subsequent feed batches. This cross-contamination may result in the exposure of non-target animal species, and hence the potential health risks for non-target animal species as well as the potential residue deposition in foods derived from these non-target animal species have been evaluated.
Accidental ingestion of feed intended for chickens or turkeys containing halofuginone at the maximum authorised level of 3 mg/kg feed, could present a health risk for several non-target animal species, including rabbits, geese, partridges and quails, which might react with feed refusal and decreased body weight gain. This dose could also cause mortality in partridges.
The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) conclude that adverse health effects in non-target animals are unlikely to occur as a result of cross-contamination of feed up to a hypothetical level of 10% of the maximum authorised level of halofuginone in feed for target animals.
No kinetic or occurrence data were available to estimate the amount of halofuginone hydrobromide residues in milk, meat or offal from non-target animal species. Hence, consumer exposure was estimated using data from eggs and kinetic data from chickens for fattening at practical zero withdrawal time. The data were extrapolated to a concentration of 0.3 mg/kg feed to correspond to feed cross-contaminated with halofuginone at a level of 10% of the maximum authorised level. Using a food basket approach for foodstuffs of animal origin, the maximum human exposure level was estimated to be 0.1 µg/kg b.w. from eggs and 0.29 µg equivalents/kg b.w. for a 60 kg person) from liver, kidney, muscle and skin/fat.
Due to the unknown nature and toxicity of the residues in avian species, the CONTAM Panel could not reach conclusions on the potential impact for consumers of such exposure.
 Food Standards Agency: Report issued on nicarbazin residues in chicken. 12 May 2008
 USDA: Development of Nicarbazin for Application as an Infertility Agent. Wildlife Services FY 2004.
 Cannavan, Andrew; Ball, Glyn ; Kennedy, D. Glenn: Determination of nicarbazin in feeds using liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry. Analyst, 1999, 124, 1431–1434
 Huet A.-C.; Mortier L.; Daeseleired E.; Fodey T. ; Elliott C.; Delahaut P.: Screening for the coccidiostats halofuginone and nitrocarbazin in egg and chicken muscle: development of an ELISA. Food Additives & Contaminants. Volume 22, Issue 2 February 2005 , pages 128 – 134. Doi: 10.1080/02652030500038041
 Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food chain on a request from the European Commission on cross-contamination of non-target feedingstuffs by halofuginone hydrobromide authorised for use as a feed additive, The EFSA Journal (2008) 657, 1-31. 21.04.2008.
14.05.2008: Organic eggs contaminated with lead 
Supermarket chain Waitrose has recalled organic eggs after a
flock of its chickens consumed lead shot from a nearby clay pigeon shoot getting into the farm.
 BBC News: Waitrose egg recall on lead fears. 10.05.2008
13.05.2008: The Netherlands Cohort Study says acrylamide raises the risk of kidney cancer 
The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 120852 men and women aged 55–69 y.
Acrylamide intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and was based on chemical analysis of all relevant Dutch foods.
The authors found dietary acrylamide increases the risk of kidney cancer, but not bladder and prostate cancer.
The highest average daily intakes of acrylamide (40.8 micrograms) was associated with a 59 per cent increased risk of developing renal cancer, compared to people with the lowest average daily intake (9.5 micrograms).
Danish Study confirms breast cancer risk caused by acrylanmide
All previous epidemiological studies have been based on food frequency questionnaires. Pelle Thonning Olesen and colleagues used biological markers to determine accurately the acrylamide levels bound to haemoglobin in red blood cells. They found a doubled risk association with a tenfold increase in the acrylamide-haemoglobin level and the development of breast cancer. This study clearly revokes the publication of Lorelei Mucci 
EPA Science Advisory Board Staff was revoked in its affirmations by Olesen study
Lorelei Mucci, a Member of the EPA Science Advisory Board Staff, wrote in 2007 that acryalmide was not linked to breast cancer following results of epidemiological studies in Sweden and USA. In prior work, her research group also examined dietary acrylamide and risk of cancer of the colon, rectum, bladder and kidney, and similarly found no association. Mucci said that at the levels found in the diet, acrylamide is unlikely to cause cancer. 
Mucci also alleges that foregoing animal studies using high acrylamide doses which had found increased rates of cancer of the thyroid, testicles, breasts, and uterus, could not be used to be compared with the human physiology. She says that humans are not exposed to such high dosis, and that humans may effectively detoxify dietary levels of acrylamide.
This may be good news for producers of French fries, coffee and bakeries but gives a false sense of food safety where the recent research of the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer and the study of Olesen from Denmark confirm the carcinogenic effect of acryladide. 
According to the Enwironmental Working Group, Lorelei Mucci sits on a panel slated to review EPA’s proposed revisions to the safety standard for acrylamide. Dr. Mucci has made numerous public statements discounting the health risks of acrylamide. Just months after her statement, the new study confirms breast cancer risc of acrylamide in food. 
The CSPI recommended the EPA to replace Dr. Lorelei Mucci by one independent epidemiologist, questioning the appropriateness of appointing her to the acrylamide panel. .
 Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Schouten, Leo J.; Konings, Erik J.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A.: Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of renal cell, bladder, and prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 87: 1428-1438.
 Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Olsen, Anja; Frandsen, Henrik; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Overvad, Kim;Tjonneland, Anne: Epidemiology: Acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer among menopausal women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. International Journal of Cancer.
Published online January 8 2008. Doi:10.1002/ijc.23359
 American Chemical Society : Acrylamide not linked to breast cancer in U.S. women, study finds. ACS News Service Weekly PressPac: August 15, 2007
 ScienceDaily: Acrylamide Not Linked To Breast Cancer, Study Finds. ScienceDaily (Aug. 24, 2007)
 Environmental Working Group: EPA Axes Panel Chair at Request of Chemical Industry Lobbyists
 CSPI: Comments on Proposed Candidates for the Acrylamide Review Panel. August 13, 2007.
11.05.2008 Looking what is behind the world of lobbying
Doug Goodyear company DCC lobbying for Burma to attain a reduction of sanctions against the military junta, organised the election campaign of George W. Bush´s second period in office. The company , sponsored by the tobacco companies, simulated activities of consumer group organised campaigns to stop anti-smoking actions. 
The latest campaigns of Dough Goodyear was paid by oil companies such as ExxonMobil, AT&T, Microsoft and die US-Pharmalobby Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. The activities of the Web-Newsmagazin “TCS” and other websites were sponsored by these companies and criticised alternative energies and the person of Al Gore.  
TCS daily does not stop at its US borders. Europe is in its headlines just to cite the article “Proliferation of Climate Scepticism in Europe” highlighting the work which is done against climate protection. 
European Situation : Verheugen protecting German carmakers
Verheugen, the vice president of the EU, says on the German paper “Welt am Sonntag” that he don't want the governments to further patronise citizens with new climate regulations. He asks for more freedom regarding the emission regulations for new cars. Verheugen says that lawmakers are increasingly interfering in the private lifestyle habits. He refers to people which call this politic an eco-dictatorship.
Verheugen wants to postpone to 2015 any decision to set a limit emission for new cars at 120 g /km CO2 . He argues that heavy carmarkers like BMW, Porsche and Daimler would be forced to increase the price of their products. Germany cars are the once which will be hit the most as no one is willing to follow the example of France and Italy which specialise on small cars with low emission. Verheugen, however, admitted to be disappointed on how little the carmakers have moved in the right direction. [5}
The interview of Verheugen presents some similarities to the playing down activities of Goodyear in USA. It becomes even more strategical power because it was published during the preparation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change at Bonn in 2-13 June 2008, and may influence the decision of the EU parliament on this matter.
The catastrophe of Burma demonstrates how heavy the poorest nations are being hit by the climate change. Specific interests of the industry have to take a backseat. One only can hope that the Vice-President of the EU does revise his opinion in face of the calamity of Burma, and support measures to reduce CO2 emission and avoid increased catastrophes such as seen at Burma. Reduction of emission of German cars are only a small contribution to the loss of lives and belongings at Burma.
 Spiegel Online: DER FALL GOODYEAR: EIN EINBLICK IN DIE LOBBYWELT May 11.2008
 TCS daily: Gore Dodges Repeated Calls to Debate Global Warming. September 28, 2007.
 TCS daily: Al Gore: The destroyer. January 7, 2008
 TCS Discussion Board: Energy and Evironment
 Spiegel Online Klimaschtz: Verheugen warnt vor Öko-Diktatur. 11.May 2008.
 Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation (TREC): DESERTEC.
 Desert Energy Project
11.05.2008 Alfa-carotene and beta-carotenereduces resk of gastric cancer 
Cristina Pearson and colleagues 2008 studied the effect of carotenoids, retinol and tocopherol on gastric cancer among Japanese with known Helicobacter pylori infection.
The authors found evidences that alfa- and beta-carotene reduces the risk of gastric cancer in men but not in women, where relatively higher plasma levels compared to men had been found.
Lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, retinol, alfa- or gama-tocopherol had no effect on gastric cancer, according to the authors. They conclude that very low plasma levels of alfa-carotene and beta -carotene are signs of a higher risk of gastric cancer.
 Persson, Christina; Sasazuki, Shizuka;Inoue, Manami; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Miura, Tsutomu; Ye, Weimin; Tsugane Shoichiro: Plasma levels of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherol and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan: A nested case-control study. Carcinogenesis, March 13, 2008. Doi:10.1093/carcin/bgn072
11.05.2008: Nestlé cracks the firewall code of your brain targeting human genetic code to increase volume of sales
An alliance of the Nestlé Research Center (NRC), Alberto Santos Dumont Association for Science (Brazil), and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) targets genes which affect the personal sensitivity to taste. This research will help Nestlé to develop a variety of food and beverage applications to meet consumer needs at all ages and stages of life, according to Peter van Bladeren
from Nestlé Science and Research. 
The project will be coordinated by the International Neuroscience Network Foundation (USA). It will use the link between an individual's genetic profile and taste sensitivity, comparing molecular-biological data from hundreds of ethnically-diverse individuals, with their genetic pre-disposition and metabolism with varying taste sensitivities. This will unveil the link between human genotype and taste perception. This will also identify clusters of people within the study population in which taste sensitivity patterns are correlated with genetic and metabolic biomarker profiles.
The company call this an opportunity for personalised solutions that address sensory preferences
Nestlé funds the Swiss EPFL with 3.1 million every year to study the role of nutrition in cognitive development in children, the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly, to better understand the gut-brain axis, and the how humans smell, taste and see food. Nestlé created two chairs at the EPFL forcing clinical trials to develop ingredients and food products under the cover of projects of fundamental science. 
According to the company the Nestlé Research Center (NRC) holds contact with universities such as Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Imperial College London (UK), Wageningen University (NL), Kyushu University (JP), Shanghai Jiao Tong University (CN) and the EPFL, one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology. Overall, the NRC has 173 outside scientific contracts. In 2005, there were 250 scientific publications and 27 patents resulting from work conducted at the NRC. 
Targeting individual's unique genotypes and their response to taste and colour of food, Nestlé
aims an attack on the genotype privacy of consumer's decision. You may say that it is good to have cereal bars tailored to once own sensory preferences. Other may say Nestlé uses science to addict the consumer to their products. It is similar to a computer virus which installs in your brain and gets you addicted to cookies, sweets and crackers from the company. Those who feel their privacy endangered say that one may build a consumer protective firewall which is to ban Nestlé branded products from your shopping list.
 FoodNavigator: Nestle collaboration to target genes and taste perception. 09.05.2008
 EPFL Media and Communications office: EPFL-Nestlé Collaboration
 Nestlé Research Center Backgrounder
11.05.2008: Nestlé: very strong organic growth
According to a Nestlé media release the organic growth of the first quarter of 2008 amounted to 6.1% in Europe, 10.9% in the Americas and 14.9% in Asia, Oceania and Africa.
Sales of organics in Europe reached CHF 6.7 billion, whereas Eastern Europe experience double-digit organic growth and Great Britain achieving near double-digit organic growth.
It is disappointing to see growing business corporations to take advantage of the initial philosophy of organics which embeds the holistic idea of nature and human activities as a whole. Organics of the super corporations mutated this idea reducing it what is feasible to large logistics. The meaning of the organic food creates the image of upper class of foods which in reality cannot resist to critics. This business destroys the infrastructure of small holistic farms. 
 Nestlé: very strong organic growth of 9.8% in first quarter of 2008. Full-year outlook confirmed
 OurFood-NEWS: Survey Concerning Organic Foods.
The population of bees in USA and Germany decline rapidly. Most bees don't die in the beehive. There are many diseases that can cause bees to lose their sense of orientation and dont find the way back to their hives. According to Walter Haefeker of board of the German Beekeepers Association (DBIB) and the European Professional Beekeepers Association there are a number of causes of the declining of bee population:
- The controversial and growing use of genetic engineering in agriculture. While in USA GM crops are very disseminated, The Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) , as the phenomena is called there, is even more acute compared with the situation inj Europe. Bacteria from genetically modified crops could affect the bees' intestinal surfaces and make them vulnerable, according to Hans Hinrich Kaatz from the University of Halle.
- Climate change. Global warming has changed growth and blossoming periods of plants in many parts of the world, which in turn can influence animals.
- Cell phones are also included in the list of possible causes.of CCD. Global Bioenergetics thinks that mobile phones, radio signals, wi-fi and microwaves is disrupting the bees. The scientists developed the Bioemitter, a device that transmits electromagnetic waves to provide a stable environment and reduce stress for the bees in their hives, boosting their immune system. According to Global Bioenergetics the Bioemitter can also get rid of the devastating varroa mite, which sucks blood from bees and leaves them susceptible to infection. 
- Varroa mite disease, from Asia, with the discouraging Latin name varroa destructor, has
threatened European bee populations for over 20 years.
- Monoculture year after year on a given plot of land reduce the bees' range of nutritional food.
- Intensive beekeeping may itself be one of the main problems. Raising dense colonies of bees narrows the genetic pool for a population, and less genetic variation weakens any species. In Turkey, where bees haven't been cultivated as intensely as they have in Germany, for example, mass deaths like the ones observed now in Europe and the United States would be unimaginable.
- The pesticide clothianidin (Poncho brand) from Bayer CropScience to fight the corn rootworm is also blamed for for the bee die-off. Clothianidin is not a selective poison and is highly toxic to honey bees according to the US Environmental Protection Agency.
- Researchers believe that the immune system of the bees collapsed as remaining bees in the hive were found to have five or six infections with viruses and fungi.
 Spiegel Online: Are GM Crops Killing Bees? 03/22/2007
 Spiegel Online: Bee Emergenci:Unexplained Mass Die-Off Hits German Hive
 Scotsman.com News: NeGood vibrations could save vanishing bees. 26 April 2008
10.05.2008: WWF criticises Germany for not doing enough to protect biological diversity 
Along with 160 other countries, Germany voluntarily signed the Convention on Biological Diversity, or CBD, in 2002. The convention's requirements aren't that tough: it calls vaguely for a significant reduction in the decline of biodiversity.
The German Environmental Ministry says the WWF's criticisms are a misunderstanding. "We're acting on the assumption that we will achieve our goals," says ministry spokesman Thomas Hagbeck.
The WWF is demanding that the federal government and the German states develop strict standards in protected areas and limit the strains on the areas. "Industry, politicians and ministries are planning damaging encroachments on some of the most valuable natural areas in the nation," Barsch says, citing new oil drilling projects in the Wattenmeer mud flats, a coal power plant on the edge of the Greifswalder Bodden reserve near the Baltic island of Rugen and the destruction of protected river estuaries along the Elbe, Weser and Ems rivers.
 Spiegel Online: Endangered Biodiversity WWF Gives Germany Low Marks for Nature Protection 7.05.2008.
08.05.2008: Bio alcohol destroys the biodiversity of Brazil
The United Nations 9th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties in Bonn in May 2008 
The 9th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will take place from 19 to 30 May 2008 in Bonn.
The CBD strengthens the principle under international law that countries have sovereign rights over their biological resources, but at the same time stressing the common interest of mankind in conserving and using these resources in a sustainable way.
The tropical forests, with their broad biodiversity, are directly or indirectly converted into biomass cultivation areas. But even where forests are not cleared for cultivation it is important to ensure that there are no negative impacts on biodiversity. Monoculture, increased irrigation and intensification of valuable, extensively used land are the key issues here.
The Conference of the Parties should therefore develop guidelines, on the basis of the latest knowledge, which outline how the negative impacts on biodiversity that result from biomass cultivation for energy production can be avoided.
The monocultures threatening biodiversity such as sugar cane and soy in South America or corn in the US cornbelt are expanding rapidly with approval of industrial countries.
Here are some facts from Brazil:
Enormous soybean plantations by Cargill and Maggy corporations.
Sugar cane plantation area coverage 
Today 70,000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 265 km.
In 4 years 120,000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 265 km.
By 2025 210.000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 458 km.
This is the size of Great Britain covered exclusively by by sugar cane, a monoculture which needs much water.
The 9th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties in Bonn will face heavy opposition which use bioalcohol to reduce their dependence on fossil fuel. Germany together with USA will dispel concerns about these monocultures driven by interests of the car makers. Minister Gabriel, The head of the Conference will have to explain how a biodiversity can be achieved in the sugar cane region which he ardently defends.
The German energy politic came to a dead end. It has to reduce the greenhouse gas emission and phase out nuclear power plants by 2020. Heavy reaction of the population arise against new coal piower plants and car makers which are unwilling to reduce fuel consumption makes the government to look after wind mills. There is no consistent plan which faces clean electricity and clean fuel for cars. On the other side, a nuclear power plant alliance between France and Italy leave Germany outside of energy talks.
Several projects were presented to establish solar power plants in the desert. A recent project united the electricity with the production of hydrogen embedded in an Arabian energy consortium. It may begin production of electricity and hydrogen in 2009 if politicians unite in a friendly cooperation with the Arabian countries. The barrier between the cultures must be overcome for the sake of the climate of our planet.
 The Federal Environment Ministry: Press Background Paper on the 9th Ordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 9) from 19 to 30 May 2008 in Bonn.
 Spiegel Online: Brazil´s Rainforests: Is Cheap Meat Bigger Threat to Amazon than Biofuels?
 The Club of Rome: The DESERTEC Concept and the Studies
 Desert Energy Project: The Arabian Desert Solar Energy Consortium Proposal
07.05.2008: Politician activities fail to achieve the environment and economy goals
Germany will pay 120 billion EUR subventions until 2035, the year in which the German photovoltaic subvention law expires. This is rawly 4 Billion EUR /year.
Animated by the abundant flow of money from taxpayers, German residents installed 1,3 GigaWatt/h photovoltaic arrays on their roofs. The 4 Billion Euro were intended to boost the national solar industry, however, the installed arrays were made in China.
Brazil bioalcohol heavily supported by German environment Minister Gabriel: 
Sugar cane today 70,000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 265 km.
In 4 years 120,000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 265 km.
By 2025 210.000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 458 km. This is the size of Great Britain.
Germany, buying certificates from sugar cane from Brazil will heat up the climate, will impoverish the rural population and bring an ecological catastrophe to the country.
To feed solar electricity for:
The whole World 110.000 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 330 km.
The EU 25 22.500 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 150 km.
Germany 7.800 square kilometres equals a square area with sides of 88 km.
The Post Fossil Energy Economy
European governments should cooperate with the Arabian countries to develop projects like the Desert Energy Project 
This project presents a feasible solution using limited areas of the Arabian desert with no impact on the ecology of the region. This project may evolve to a global grid which may feed the energy demands of the whole world.
Here are the facts:
Initial 1 Gigawatt solar power plant
Investment = 8 Billion EUR Germany. Produces free electricity for 25 years.
Following powerplants will cost 3,3 Billion per Gigawatt
During 25 years electricity will be practically for free.
Hydrogen as fuel for automobiles may be produced on demand.
Remember : The German consumer is actually spending 4 Billion EUR/year = 100 Billion EUR over this period. Hydrogen for automobiles produced from the solar electricity will avoid breakdown of nature.
 Erneuerbare Energie Gesetz
 Spiegel Online: Chinese ueberschwemmen Deutschland mit Solarzellen.
 Spiegel Online: Brazil´s Rainforests: Is Cheap Meat Bigger Threat to Amazon than Biofuels? 05.05.2008.
 Wikipedia: Erneuerbare Energie
 Eco-balance of a Solar Electricity: Transmission from North Africa to Europe. Technical University of Braunschweig. Faculty for Physics and Geological Sciences. Diploma Thesis of Nadine May 17. August 2005.
 Desert Enerrgy Project
Supplementation of vitamin A or iron alone did not improve growth, but multimicronutrient does 
Usha Ramakrishnan and colleagues 2004 in a meta-analyses of randomized controlled intervention trials assessing the effects of vitamin A, iron, and multimicronutrient interventions on the growth of children under 18 years old found that suplementation of vitamin A or iron alone did not improve child growth. Multimicronutrient, however, improved children growth.
Combined iron and zinc supplementation of infants 
Emorn Wasantwisut and colleagues 2006 found in a study that iron supplementation improved hemoglobin, iron status, and ponderal growth, whereas zinc supplementation improved zinc status. The authors concluded that for infants, combined iron and zinc supplementation is preferable to iron or zinc supplementation alone.
Food choice has little influence on iron status 
Dietary intake was not significantly correlated with hemoglobin concentrations according to a study by Inger Öhlund and colleagues. The authors found in this study that the consumption of meat products had a positive effect on serum ferritin concentrations and mean corpuscular volume in boys.
In healthy, well-nourished children with a low prevalence of iron deficiency, the mother's but not the father's hemoglobin was significantly associated with that of her child, but the authors could not explain its reason.
Infant social-emotional behaviour and iron deficiency 
Lozoff and colleagues 2008 assessed the dose-response relationships between severity of iron deficiency (ID) and infant social-emotional behaviour. The authors found a linear effects of poorer iron status for shyness (increasing, maternal rating), orientation-engagement, and soothability (decreasing, examiner ratings). The authors stress that iron deficiency without anemia is not detected by common screening procedures and is more widespread than the other form, and social-emotional behaviour can profoundly influence the care-giving environment, with repercussions for overall development.
Does iron-fortified formula slow development ich children? 
Infant formulas are fortified in USA with 12 mg/L of iron to prevent iron-deficiency anaemia whereas Europe generally uses a lower amount; in the UK, the limit for iron in cows milk based infant formula is 1.5mg/100 kcal and 2,0 mg/100 kCal. 
According to Betsy Lozoff and colleagues iron-fortified baby formula may pose a developmental risk to children who do not need iron supplementation. The authors found that ten years after receiving formula containing 12 mg/L of iron as infants, children had lower scores across a battery of developmental tests compared with children given formula containing 2.3 mg/L of iron.
The authors, however call for more studies on this subject before any change is warranted.
Infant motor development and iron 
According to Shafir and colleagues 2008 poorer motor function in iron deficient infants with and without anemia were found, Whereas non anemic iron deficiency were classified by the authors as particularly concerning, since it is not detected by common screening procedures and is more widespread than the anemic form.
 Lozoff, Betsy; De Andraca, Isidora; Castillo, Marcela; Smith, Julia B.; Walter, Tomas; Pino, Paulina: Behavioral and Developmental Effects of Preventing Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Healthy Full-Term Infants. Pediatrics Vol. 112 No. 4 October 2003, pp. 846-854
 Olney, Deanna K.; Pollitt, Ernesto; Kariger, Patricia K.; Khalfan, Sabra S.; Ali, Nadra S.; Tielsch, James M.; Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Robert; Allen, Lindsay H.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.: Combined Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation with or without Zinc Reduces Time to Walking Unassisted among Zanzibari Infants 5- to 11-mo old. J. Nutr., September 1, 2006; 136(9): 2427 - 2434.
 Wasantwisut, Emorn; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Russameesopaphorn, Wanphen: Iron and Zinc Supplementation Improved Iron and Zinc Status, but Not Physical Growth, of Apparently Healthy, Breast-Fed Infants in Rural Communities of Northeast Thailand J. Nutr., September 1, 2006; 136(9): 2405 - 2411.
 Öhlund, Inger; Lind, Torbjörn; Hörnell, Agneta; Hernell, Olle: Predictors of iron status in well-nourished 4-y-old children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 87, No. 4, 839-845, April 2008
 Lozoff, B.; Clark, K.M.; Jing, Y.; Armony-Sivan R.; Angelilli, M.L.; Jacobson, S.W.: Dose-response relationships between iron deficiency with or without anemia and infant social-emotional behavior. 2008 May;152(5):696-702, 702.31-3. Epub 2007 Nov 19.
 Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Smith, Julia B.: Poorer developmental outcome at 10 years with 12 mg/L iron-fortified formula in infancy" PAS Meeting 2008; Abstract 5340.2.
 EU Commission: Commission Directive of 14 May 1991 on infant formulae and follow-on formulae (91/321/EEC).
 Shafir T.; Angulo-Barroso, R.; Jing Y.; Angelilli, M.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Lozoff, B.: Iron deficiency and infant motor development. Early Hum Dev, 2008 Feb 11
China and India change the world food markets increasing food imports. Both countries are not
self-sufficient. Meanwhile the Amazon region is under heavy environment pressure caused by the US company Cargill which has made Santarém located at the Tapajós River as his terminal for soybeans. China is the major customer for soybeans from the Amazon region. In one decade enormous areas were clearcut by André Maggi Group, one of the world's largest soybean producers. Soybean farms are swallowing up the traditional pastures of cattle farmers which are forced to burn other areas to transform them to pastures.
More than half of all soybean production in the world now ends up in China. This increases meat prices for the Brazilian population. Hundreds of small farmers became unemployed when they sold their fields to soybean farmers are a consequence of changes in eating habits.
China and India will invest in Southeast Asia and Africa establishing grain farms in Zambia and Uganda.
Germans should become vegans but may use speedy cars says German environment Minister Gabriel 
The German environment Minister Sigmar Gabriel on a trip to Brazil says that soybeans used as feed for meat farming endangers the rain forest of the Amazon more than bioalcohol and biodiesel does. He says that it is easier for the population to label cars as evil than to go to a vegan restaurant. Minister Gabriel during hios visit to Brazil was lobbied by his Brazilian environment minister Marina da Silva which presented the strategy to avoid further ecological disasters.
The minister Gabriel says that Germany will increase its import and subventions of biofuel from Brazil as he sees no harm to Brazilian environment and food supply for the population of the region. Brazil will force palm oil plantation which destroyed great part of the rainforest on Indonesia.
Sugar cane in Brazil already covers 70.000 square kilometres and is planed to be increased to 120.000 square kilometres in four years to feed the export of alcohol to Germany. In the year 2025 the area covered by sugar cane are planed to increase up to 210.000 square kilometres, which is the area of Great Britain.
The environment strategy Germany recently moved to an industry friendly course.
Environment researchers , such as Mojib Latif from the Leibniz-Institute for Marine Sciences in Kiel , the United Nations and NGO´s say relying on biofuel, coal and fossil energy will lead to a disaster. 
An alternative to old fashioned strategies is the use of solar energy from the desert where it does not compete with food crops. 
 Spiegel Online: Global Food Crisis: The Struggle to Satisfy China and India's Hunger. 28.04.2008
 Spiegel Online: Wie deutsches Billigfleisch dem Regenwald schadet. 06.05.2008 
 Keenlyside, N. S., Latif, M.; Jungclaus, J.; Kornblueh, L. ; Roeckner, E.: Advancing Decadal-Scale Climate Prediction in the North Atlantic Sector. Nature, 453, 84-88. 2008.
 The Global Sustainable Energy Proposal.
01.05.2008: Pectin and starches in low fat foods
The addition of pectin to low fat cheese can improve its texture and flavour characteristics according to He Liu, Xue Ming Xu, and Shi Dong Guo in 2008 . 
The same authors had studied in 2007 the use of citrus low-methoxylated pectin in low fat mayonnaise . The authors concluded that pectin weak-gel and microparticulated pectin gel could be used as a fat mimetic in mayonnaise. 
Ying Maand colleagues 2006 found that fine-granule starches prepared with dextrozyme can act as mimetics for generating fatty mouthfeel. These starches were used as fat replacer in mayonnaise with good results. 
Oreopoulou and colleagues 2002 used carbohydrate- or protein-based fat mimetics to replace up to 50% of fat in cookies. The effect of these fat replacers on textural behaviour of the products was studied by compression tests. The authors found that hardness and brittleness of the cookies generally increased with fat replacement. Better characteristics were found with the use of some fat replacers when moderate increase was obtained. 
 Liu, He; Xu, Xue Ming; Guo, Shi Dong: Comparison of full-fat and low-fat cheese analogues with or without pectin gel through microstructure, texture, rheology, thermal and sensory analysis. International Journal of Food Science & Technology (Blackwell Publishing). 15 February 2008, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01616.x
 Liu, He; Xu, Xue Ming; Guo, Shi Dong: Rheological, texture and sensory properties of low-fat mayonnaise with different fat mimetics. LT- Food Science and Technology. Volume 40, Issue 6, August 2007, Pages 946-954 . Doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2006.11.007
 Ma, Ying; Cai, Chunguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Da-Wen : Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn starch for producing fat mimetics. Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 73, Issue 3, April 2006, Pages 297-303. Doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.01.023
 Zoulias, E. I.; Oreopoulou, V. ; Tzia, C.: Textural properties of low-fat cookies containing carbohydrate- or protein-based fat replacers. Journal of Food Engineering. Volume 55, Issue 4, December. 2002, Pages 337-342 doi: 10.1016/S0260-8774(02)00111-5
01.05.2008: Protein and much more from potato 
Potato starch producing companies, such as Avebe, sold the proteins from the production waste as low-value animal feed. Rising food prices and emerging market for vegetarian food made it attractive to develop a technology to use proteins from industrial potato waste as human food.
Potato proteins are soluble without hydrolyses which is needed in many other vegetable proteins.
According to the producer the amino acid composition is comparable to whey protein and is better than other vegetable proteins, like soy, wheat gluten, pea. The potato protein fractions are ingredients for consumer food and beverage products.
Potato and tapioca-based starch products are widely used in the paper industry.
In food industry these starches influence the sensory properties, such as clear, glistening, soft, creamy, crisp and light, and improve freeze/thaw stability and shelf-life extension.
Potato starch may replace mung bean starch in the production of glass noodles. Mung beans are very expensive and their supply is irregular. Glass noodles must be frozen during production. That is the reason why they were produced in China only during the winter. Potato starch has been adapted to this production procedure.
Instant fried noodles is a convenience food with short preparation time of no more than few minutes by adding hot water. This is achieved by adding 10 to 20 percent of potato starch to wheat flower in the formulation of instant fried noodles.
Air-dried noodles are produced by air-drying which replaces the frying step. Air-dried noodles contain 10 to 35 percent potato and tapioca starches to wheat flour. Air-dried noodles contains significantly lower amounts of fat which is an important quality of healthy foods.
Long life noodles maintain texture and taste of freshly made noodles during extended storage by adding acidulants and heat sterilisation to reduce the microbial growth. Retrogradation of starch degrades the texture of cooked noodles during storage. Adding potato and tapioca starch reduces the retrogradation, improving the texture stability and reducing cooking time.
Frozen and chilled noodles is gaining importance in the convenience market. Texture and taste are enhanced with potato starches.
Rice noodles well known in Asia as rice being an important staple food. Adding potato starch and tapioca starch to rice noodle formulation improves their characteristics.
These components have different properties due to differences in molecular structure. Functionality of amylopectin is similar to gum arabic whilst the funcitonality of amylose can be compared to gelatin, pectin and agar-agar.
Modified starches meet the gelling properties required by gums, jellies and aerated confectionery such as marshmallows. Native potato starch consists of amylopectin which resembles gum arabic, and amylose which is near to gelatin, pectin and agar-agar. Varying the proportion of these components the starch properties are modified accordingly.
In yoghurt starches replace gelatine which came under scrutiny because of the risk caused by BSE and by doubts of the origin of bones and connective tissue from pork in Halal and Kosher foods.
 Avebe: Starches that improve texture, stability and appearance of food products