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Food waste

Wheat waste conversion to biomass or biogas

Environmental growing concerns and rising food prices turn the possible uses of waste is of great importance to optimise the conversion of wheat, barley and oat waste into useful materials such as biomass, biogas/biofuel, animal feed and composting.

Arvanitoyannis and colleagues recommend the conversion of wheat waste into biomass or biogas in view of the energy problems and the extended pollution of the environment due to release of carbon dioxide compared with other methods such as incineration.

Corn and rice waste treatment

Corn and rice waste are of great volume. Arvanitoyannis and Tzerkzou published a review for most of the waste treatment techniques (composting, pyrolysis, gasification, combustion), to reduce its volume and/or toxicity and to make the waste safer for disposal and uses of treated corn and rice waste such as fertilisers, biomass and biogas/biofuel.

Uses of treated fish waste

Fish waste has great impact on the marine environment and EU regulations include it within the frame of Integrated Coastal Management. Arvanitoyannis and colleagues 2008 summerise the application of fish waste as animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction), food-packaging applications (chitosan), cosmetics (collagen), enzyme isolation, Cr immobilisation, soil fertiliser and moisture maintenance in foods (hydrolysates).

Meat waste treatment

According to Arvanitoyannis and colleagues meat waste materials like blood, hair, tail, horns and bones are a high pollution factor of meat production. Methods like aerobic and anaerobic composting like windrows, aerated static piles and bins or aerated chambers are discussed. According to the authors meat and bone meal are increasingly being used in animal nutrition as a protein source in place of proteinaceous feeds.

Disposal of waste from olive oil

The olive oil industry continues to be one of the most heavily polluting ones among the food industries. various thermal processes, such as pyrolysis, combustion and gasification, were investigated. Another crucial issue is the fate of treated waste. Arvanitoyannis and colleagues 2007 present a review of various thermal treatment waste methodologies and summarise the uses activated carbon and briquette production.

Farmers' market, a sustainable solution for small farmers

Products at farmers' markets are renowned for being locally grown and very fresh. Farmers' markets advocates believe the markets help farmers stay in business as well as preserve natural resources. Wholesale prices farmers get for their produce are very low, often near the cost of production. It can be shown that the preservation of farmland is important for the health of the environment and water supply. Sustainably-managed farms conserve soil and clean water in our communities and provide a habitat for wildlife.

UK farmers' markets

According to the Councillor' Handbook farmers' markets give smaller local producers an outlet direct to the public enabling them to become less reliant on wholesalers and supermarkets. The Handbook stresses that Trading Standards and Environmental Health Services are closely involved in ensuring the markets achieve the standards required. The Handbook cites Hampshire farmers' markets as a case study. The market has been certified by the National Association of Farmers' Markets [3]. Produce being sold at all Hampshire's farmers' markets must have been grown, reared, caught, brewed, pickled, baked, or processed within Hampshire or ten miles of the border.

US Farmland preservation

American Farmland Trust is helping the county’s farmland preservation program into opportunities for direct marketing, value-added products and a vibrant local food and farming system by: -Identifying municipal barriers that hinder local farmers' ability to connect directly with local consumers; -Creating a model ordinance that supports a local food system and protects farmers from rural-urban conflicts; and, -Finding out what other places have done to increase the access of low income populations to local food through token payment programs at farmers’ markets.

Farmers' markets in Germany

These markets are regulated by Germany the Gewerbeordnung [Trade Code). There is no Farmers' markets certification body in Germany. There are no restrictions like those found in Hampshire which allow only products have been grown, reared, caught, brewed, pickled, baked, or processed within the region where markets are taking place or ten miles of the border.

Other great markets like the "Hamburger Großmarkt" market which supplies foodstuffs from international origin to the great supermarket chains are quite different.Their aim as commercial entity is to make profit. They do not protect local farmers and they have no restrictions on carbon footprint.