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31.01.2009: New study rises doubts on effectiveness of portion size information labelling 
Ueland and colleagues 2009 examined the relation of portion size information to the consumer's satiety and intake. They note that portion size is used differently by food manufacturers, regulatory agencies, and consumers. They found that consumer associate portion size more with daily nutrient requirements than with an ideal amount that would be appropriate to eat.
The Codex and the EU with the Directive 90/496 considered distinctively servings and portions as the additional information per 100 g/ml. Within this regulation, it was implicit that servings related to a unit which has to be divided in a given number of servings, and portions came already in the desired size. The Commission is working on a new proposal 2008/0028 (COD) which will replace the directive 90/496. The term “portion” will be used to replace “servings”.
Nutritional information presented on food labels may refer to ‘per portion’ or ‘per serving’ in addition to a ‘per 100g’ quantity. However, the size of a portion is determined by the producer.
The traffic light labelling scheme 
To make it easier for the consumer to choose healthy foods, the colours were introduced.
In the UK the traffic light labelling scheme has been under attack from the industry. The Food and Drink Federation claimed, that red for salt in 100 g, may get yellow, or even green, when size of servings are kept are kept accordingly low.
Guideline daily amounts (GDA) per serving 
Guideline daily Amounts (GDAs) are guidelines for an average person with a healthy weight and an average level of activity. Individual needs vary depending on your sex, weight, activity levels and if you are still growing.
The food industry favours the guideline daily amounts (GDA) per serving. If there red colours turn up, the size of the portion is reduced. The consumer eats according to his appetite. He is becalmed by the green colours and takes an extra portion.
Portion Size informations
Serving informations should not be misleading and be based on realistic portion sizes. Some companies label unrealistic serving sizes in order to achieve low nutritional values, such as the frozen fish food with a weight of 400 g. The nutritional informations were calculated on portions of 150g.
What happens with the rest of 100 g after consuming two portions? My advice to the producer is to label realistic portions of 200 g and to use the FSA colour code for their front-of-pack nutritional signpost labelling.
The Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD) 
IGD helps the food and grocery industry develop a consistent context for determining portion sizes. The group, in a recent report, stresses that portion size is an important determinant of nutritional content. The Institute stresses that we tend to eat the portion on the plate in front of us, and this has led to calls for a reduction in the size of products that are high in saturated fat and sugar, however, reducing the size of packs leads the consumer to eat more packs. Energy desnty information are therefore important factors of intake behaviour.
EU research program to find the best nutrition labelling sheme 
FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life), is an EU-funded research programme on nutrition labelling.
The research program wants to determine the influence on the consumer of food label on dietary choices, and also the impact of different labelling schemes Nutrition table, Traffic Light scheme, Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Health Logos and others.
European Food Information Council (EUFIC) research on nutrition labels 
EUFIC, in a 2004 research on consumer expectations of nutrition labels, found that most consumers do not find nutrition labels user-friendly. They are therefore inclined to ignore them.
According to the study, consumer focus groups found front of pack energy information as a true innovation and one that they would like to see on all packs, it would spare time when shopping, by giving a quick overview of the nutritional quality of the product.
Declaration per 100 g easier comparison between products
This study found that, regarding front of pack flags, the expression of calorie content per 100g allowed for easier comparison between products, whilst calories per portion made calculation of actual intake easier, as long as the size of a ‘portion’ was well defined.
The vast majority of respondents agreed that energy information was the right focus, and was understood by most people to be linked to weight control. However, some consumers, particularly those in the older age groups, felt that information about salt and fat content was also important.
The EU Platform for Action on Diet, Physical Activity and Health 
The EU Platform for Action on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (2008) stresses that modifying portion sizes can help to reduce over-consumption. The Platform suggests reduction of the portion sizes, but sees it as not a realistic strategy due to objections from both consumers and producers. Another strategy is the introduction of smaller sized products along the existing range, as well as limiting their
energy density such as the “light” range, or to introduce artificial stopping points subdividing large packages into smaller sub-packages, or by introducing internal sleeves.
The way of the industry and advertising business, however is the reduction of portion size on the nutritional labelling, and not on the total size of the packaging.
 Ueland,O.; Cardello, A.V.; Merrill, E.P.; Lesher, L.L.: Effect of Portion Size Information on Food Intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. January 2009, Volume 109, Issue 1, Pages 124-127
 Council Directive 90/496/EEC of 24 September 1990 on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs.
 2008/0028 (COD) Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the
Council on the provision of food information to consumers
 Codex Guidelines on Nutrition Labelling CAC/GL 2 1985
 UK FSA: Traffic light labelling
 UK Food and Drink Federation: GDA
 The Institute of Grocery Distribution (IGD): Helping industry develop a consistent context for determining portion sizes.
 FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life)
 EUFIC: An energy-based approach to nutrition labelling
 EU Platform for Action on Diet, Physical Activity and Health – Annual Report 2008
31.01.2009: Peanut butter associated with Salmonella outbreak 
The US authorities have reported 529 cases of illness from Salmonella Typhimurium in 43 US states. Illness is associated with peanut butter and peanut products from the Peanut Corporation of America (PCA).
Recall is difficult because the PCA peanut products are sold to institutions and industry for further processing such as production of crackers, cookies, energy bar and sweets, with a wide spread over many countries.
HACCP safety system failure
It is main target of HACCP systems to establish control points to eliminate health hazards. This includes control of raw ware, processing temperatures and the sanitation of storage facilities, transport pipelines, valves and packaging system. A failure of food safety of products of such size rises concerns about the effectiveness of the hygiene control systems and certification accreditations in use.
Recall lists of peanut bars extended CFIA product list
FDA Recall list
 UK FSA: US peanut company extends recall. Friday 30 January 2009
30.01.2009: EU Regulation of maximum residue levels of pesticides 
Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 establishes the maximum residue levels MRLs of
pesticides permitted in products of animal or vegetable origin intended for human or animal consumption.
The Regulation is applicable since September 2008.
The EFSA suggestion on some Pesticide MRLs [2}
EFSA calles for lower MRLs where safety concerns were identified and also for substances where data available were not sufficient to substantiate the safety of the current MRL.
According to the EFSA the MRLs of active substances not authorised in the European Union should be set at the lowest level which can be measured through routine monitoring.
EFSA proposes the change of the MRL of pesticides
ADI 0,04mg/Kg bw/day
ARfD 0,05 mg/Kg bw/day
|Clomazonelomazonelomazone||0,01||to be maintained||In rice|
|Lambda-cyhalothrinin||0,01||0,20||In currant In currant|
|Trifloxistrobin||-||0,10||Passion fruits from Kenia|
|Azoxystrobin||-||0,10||In passion fruit Kenya|
|Fludioxonil||-||3,00||Pomegranades from USA|
MRLs of concern 
The EFSA found the MRLs of concern for the active substances and suggests significant reduction of the actual MRLs: Vinclozolin, procymidone, pirimiphos-methyl, oxydemeton-methyl, methomyl and thiodicarb, methamidophos, fenarimol, carbendazim, fenamiphos, ethephon, benfuracarb and carbosulfan, methomyl and thiodicarb,
Reaction of the food industry 
Food manufacturers say serious problems will arise from a tightening of pesticides regulations.
According to the Food and Drink Federation (FDF) the reduced MRLs, the ban of some chemicals and the tighter management of pesticides may cause a reduction of 20 to 30 per cent in yields. A range of fruit and vegetables will be unable to grow in UK.
Food and Drink Federation says that the the legislation had no scientific or practical basis.
Study complains about high pesticide MRLs in fruit juices 
Study from Juan F. Garcia-Reyes and colleagues 2008, says that pesticide MRLs in fruit juices are hundreds of times higher as those for water and mineral water.
Juices and fruit-based soft drinks produced in Spain and UK were found by the authors to have the highest levels of pesticides like carbendazim, thiabendazole, imazalil and malathion, compared with products from Russia and United States which had the lowest pesticide residues in the trial.
This justifies actions of the EFSA facing a reduction of pesticide levels. Fruit juices promoted as very healthy for kids need to be strongly regulated.
The authors present a new methodology to analyse pesticide residues in juices and fruit-based beverages.
 Regulation EC 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 February 2005
on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC
 EFSA Opinion on some pesticides. 27.11.2008.
 EurActiv: Pesticides: Tough negotiations ahead as MEPs back bans . Published: Thursday 6 November 2008
 Juan F. Garcia-Reyes, Bienvenida Gilbert-Lopez and Antonio Molina-Diaz, Amadeo R. Fernandez-Alba: Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fruit-Based Soft Drinks. Anal. Chem., 2008, 80 (23), pp 8966–8974 DOI: 10.1021/ac8012708 Publication Date (Web): November 4, 2008
28.01.2009: Citrus Black Spot disease, EU does not lift the South Africa citrus fruits ban 
Guignardia citricarpa attacks a wide variety of citrus species causing black spots and blemishes making them unsuitable for sale.
South African authorities asked the European Commission to revise their phytosanitary measures regarding the import of fresh citrus fruit from South Africa, alleging that the citrus-growing areas of Europe do not have a climate suitable for the Citrus Black Spot disease.
According to the EU Panel, however, South Africa affirmations were based on results of software which was unsuitable for this evaluation.
For South Africa, as the country of origin, the Panel suggests that methods to accelerate citrus black spot symptoms development, combined with a standardised sampling scheme, could be applied in a pre-entry quarantine system to improve the detection of infested consignments before shipping.
The Panel concludes that phytosanitary inspections and interceptions at all points of entry to the Community are appropriate in order to protect the citrus fruit growing areas. Symptoms of the disease could not be easily seen on the fruit, making it difficult to intercept them at EU borders. Therefore, the existing measures are in line with the IPPC principle of minimal impact.
Phytosanitary risk of Guignardia citricarpa 
It is of tropical origin causing serious damage in subtropical climates, like China, Australia and South Africa.
According to EPPO Data Sheet on Quarantine Pests, it could be expected to establish and cause significant losses if introduced into the Mediterranean citrus-growing areas.
Phytosanitary measures to avoid import of organism harmful to plants in the EU 
The Directive establishes measures to avoid the import of plant diseases and plant pests in the EU. Plants and plant products which might bear these hazards are listed in the Directive.
The presence of some of these harmful organisms, when plants or plant products are introduced from countries in which these organisms occur, cannot be effectively checked. It is therefore necessary to make minimum provision for bans on the introduction of certain plants and plant products, or to provide for special checks to be made in the producer countries.
The The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) 
The IPPC is an international treaty to secure action to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products, and to promote appropriate measures for their control. It is governed by the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures which adopts International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.
 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Heath on a request from the European Commission on Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. The EFSA Journal (2008) 925, 1-108.
 EPPO: Data Sheets on Quarantine Pests: Guignardia citricarpa
 Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 May 2000 last amendment 2008 on protective measures against the introduction into the Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread within the Community.
 IPPC: The International Plant Protection Convention
28.01.2009: Labelling of gluten-free foods 
Wheat (i.e. all Triticum species, such as durum wheat, spelt, and kamut), rye and barley, have been identified as grains that are scientifically reported to contain gluten. The gluten present in those grains can cause adverse health effects to persons intolerant to gluten and therefore should be avoided by them.
Different people with intolerance to gluten may tolerate variable small amounts of gluten within a restricted range. In order to enable individuals to find on the market a variety of foodstuffs appropriate for their needs and for their level of sensitivity, a choice of products should be possible with different low levels of gluten within such a restricted range.
Under the new European Union regulation (EC) No 41/2009 of 20 January 2009 , two claims are allowed:
Gluten-free: A maximum of 20 parts per million of gluten are allowed. These products are intended for those who are extremely sensitive to gluten.
Very low gluten: This declaration is allowed for products which have up to 100 ppm of gluten. Foods with this label can be used by persons which are less sensitive to gluten.
Codex Alimentarius: The claims of gluten specified in EC 41/2009 were also adopted in the Codex Standard Codex Stan 118-1979, in the version of 2008. 
The Association of European Coeliac Societies 
The Association of European Coeliac Societies (AOECS) was founded in 1988. This Association reviews problems of international importance, coordinates international activities and matters of common interest of the members and favours the exchange of information among the members for the benefit of Europeans affected by the coeliac condition or dermatitis herpetiformis.
Population screening test 
Early diagnosis and strict maintenance of a gluten-free diet will significantly reduce the risk of problems associated with coeliac disease stresses, says the Association of European Coeliac Societies (AOECS)
According to the Association population screening is the only way to identify the majority of CD patients. A combination of serology and HLA-typing is the only definitive way to screen for coeliac disease; a combined diagnosis accounting for symptomatic, silent and latent CD patients aims for a 100% specificity and sensitivity.
European Commission, therefore, designated 9.5M€ towards research and innovation for the diagnosis, monitoring and management of Coeliac Disease (CD).
The diagnosis system CD-MEDICS
The CD-MEDICS Integrated Project-Coeliac Disease Management Monitoring and Diagnosis using Biosensors and an Integrated Chip System developes a lab-on-a-chip device. In this system a drop of blood on a card is subjected the a microstructured fluidic network of reagents. The special surface of the card captures biological components being looked for and are detected by a sensor. This enables a fast diagnosis of population screening, based on the combination of serology and Human Leukocyte Antigen-typing (HLA-typing)
Other Tests made easy 
Biosensor devices also can precisely measure blood glucose using biosensor for detecting blood glucose and other biological molecules using hollow structures called single-wall carbon nanotubes anchored to gold-coated "nanocubes." The device resembles a tiny cube-shaped tetherball anchored to electronic circuitry by a nanotube. Timothy Fisher, from the Purdue University develops such devices using nanotechnology, similar to the European Project to monitore Coeliac Disease.
According to Fischer, the sensing portion of the system , the nanocubes, extend out from the rest of the device and can more easily come into contact with target molecules enhancing sensitivity.
Contrary to other sensors the nano-tetherball biosensor can detect wide range of concentrations whereas other sensors work only in narrow rages of specific concentrations.
The researchers grow nanotubes on a porous anodic alumina template. Paladium nanocubes, coated with gold,are also formed. They are then connected with biotin-streptavidin combination which is already being used to analyse biological samples. Replacing the biotin with glucose oxidase the sensor became sensitive to glucose concentrations. The enzyme causes an electrochemical reaction in the presence of glucose and oxygen, generating an electrical signal, explain the authors.
 European Commission Regulation 41/2009 of 20 January 2009 concerning the composition and labelling of foodstuffs suitable for people intolerant to gluten.
 Codex Stan 118-1979: Codex Standard for Special Dietary Use for Persons Intolerant to Gluten. Adopted in 1979; amended 1983; revised 2008
 The Association of European Coeliac Societies (AOECS)
 AOECS Research News: Coeliac Disease – Management, Monitoring and Diagnosis using Biosensors and an Integrated Chip System (CD-MEDICS)
 Purdue University News: Nano-tetherball Biosensor Precisely Detects Glucose. 22.01.2009
23.01.2009: Advertise of unhealthy foods predominate 
Jean Adams and Martin White assessed advertise of foods in UK weekly magazines. They found
unhealthy foods such as ones which were low in carbohydrates and low in fibre, had high percentage of sugars, high content of sodium. A high percentage of the advertising foods were rich in fat/sugar such as ice-cream, chocolate bars, sweets and full sugar soft drinks. They were generally much higher in sugar and salt, and lower in fibre than the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations.
Healthy foods like vegetables and fruits are not backed by big advertising budgets of food corporations.
The author point to the fact that Advertising in magazines may play a role in food choice and adiposity.
They deplore that advertising in print media received little research attention compared to food advertising on television. They advice the consumer to take care not to be duped by magazine ads that promote unhealthy diets.
 Adams, Jean; White, Martin:Socio-economic and gender differences in nutritional content of foods advertised in popular UK weekly magazines. European Journal of Public Health. 2009 Jan 18. Epub ahead of print. Doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckn132
23.01.2009: Μetabolomics 
Metabolomics is, according to a definition by Daviss, the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind". It is the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.  The metabolome represents the collection of all metabolites in a biological organism, which are the end products of its gene expression, and can give an instantaneous snapshot of the physiology of that cell.
New Terminology 
New terminology emerges with the new fieds of science: omics refers fields in biology which have such a suffix genomics or proteomics, and omes referes to genome and proteome, which is the entire complement of proteins expressed by a genome, cell, tissue or organism.
First metabolomics laboratory in UK will study the impact on health 
The laboratory will be maintained by the University of Birmigham, which believes that this new area of science will improve understanding of how pollutants can impact individuals and their health.
Metabolomics Society 
According to the Metabolomics Society metabolomics is a newly emerging field of "omics" research concerned with the comprehensive characterization of the small molecule metabolites in biological systems. The Society believes that metabolomics can assess the metabolic status and global biochemical events associated with a cellular or biological system, and reveal both the physiological state of a cell or organism and of their responses to environment. UK, USA and Australia are the most active countries researching in metabolomics.
The European Nutrigenomics Organisation NuGO 
The European Nutrigenomics Organisation is a network linking genomics, nutrition and health research.
A key objective of the network will be the development, data warehousing and exploitation of nutrition and health-related bioinformatics for the benefit of European nutrition researchers, and for the community as a whole.
 Wikipedia: Metabolomics
 B. Daviss, "Growing pains for metabolomics," The Scientist, 19:25-28, April 25, 2005
 Wikipedia: -omics
 UK Investment and Trade Services: Birmingham gains first metabolomics lab. A facility supporting an emerging science will be set up at a UK university.
 Metabolomics Society
 The European Nutrigenomics Organisation NuGO
22.01.2009: Peanut butter Salmonella outbreak 
The outbreak strain of Salmonella typhimurium in late 2008 and January 2009 may have contributed to six deaths, according to the CDC. The FDA confirmed that the source of the outbreak is peanut butter and peanut paste made by the Peanut Corporation of America (PCA) at its Blakely, Ga., processing plant.
The PCA peanut butter and the peanut paste is sold to institutions throughout the state to long-term care facilities, hospitals, schools, restaurants, delis, universities, cafeterias and bakeries. It is also sold to food manufacturers of products such as crackers, cookies, cakes, cereal, candy, and ice cream.
The FDA advises consumers not to eat commercially prepared products containing peanut butter or peanut paste, or peanut butter served at institutions. Watch the list of ingredients at the label.
 CDC: Salmonella thyphimurium. Update for January 21, 2009.
New cases in China in January 2009: Chinese health authorities are worried with a third case of bird flu. No abnormality was found in poultry farms or agriculture markets where the child where the last case had been in contact with.
Health officials say if there is no avian flu outbreak in poultry and yet there are human cases, a change in the virus might have happened, so that chicken do not get sick, but the H5N1 virus remains deadly to humans.
Another possibility of "silently infected chickens" carrying the virus or transmitting the disease without bird flu-like symptoms.
WHO urges consumer to maintain normal precautions against avian influenza, such as ensuring all poultry is well cooked and always washing hands after contact with raw meat.
New case in Egypt: A new human case of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection was hospitalized on 10 January 2009 and is currently in a stable condition. The patient had contact with sick and dead poultry. Of the 52 cases confirmed to date in Egypt, 23 have been fatal. 
 UPI.com: Third case of bird flu in China
 WHO: 19 January 2009 -- The Ministry of Health in China has reported 3 new cases of human infection with the H5N1 avian influenza virus.
 Avian influenza - situation in Egypt – update 14 January 2009
17.01.2009: Non- culture techniques to detect difficult to cultivate bacteria 
Uncultivated and difficult-to-cultivate bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Leptotrichia
(Sneathia) spp., a Bergeyella sp., a Peptostreptococcus sp., Bacteroides spp., and a species of the order Clostridiales may have clinical relevance.
Dr. Yiping W. Han and colleagues 2009 stress that 60% of the microbes present in cases of intra-amniotic inflammation, leading to preterm birth, are missed with traditional culture testing. The authors compared the results of 16S rRNA-based culture-independent methods with standard culture testing.
Two-thirds of the species detected by the culture-independent methods were not isolated by culture.
These results correlated with increased amniotic fluid levels of interleukin-6, histological chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and delivery of neonates with early-onset sepsis. The authors point to the fact that difficult-to-cultivate bacteria may play a role in pre term birth.
 Han, Yiping W.; Shen, Tao; Chung, Peter; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.:
Uncultivated Bacteria as Etiologic Agents of Intra-Amniotic Inflammation Leading to Preterm Birth.
J. Clin. Microbiol. 2009, 47: 38-47
16.01.2009: Authentication of organic milk 
Joachim Molketin 2009 developed a method for the authentication of German organic retail milk. It is based on the distribution of carbon delta 13 and the alfa-linolenic acid (C18:3omega3) in milk fat.
Maize accumulates more the heavier carbon 13 isotope than the normal carbon 12 isotope found in grass sillage and hay.
Increase of alfa-linoleic acid is a result from reduced maize sillage and high portion of roughage during the whole year, with fresh grass in the summer and grass/clover silage or hay in the winter.
According to Molketin, organic milk was always above a minimum C18:3omega3 content of 0.50% and below a maximum delta 13 carbon of −26.5‰. The author found that, contrary to the general opinion, organic milk did not generally contain more c9,t11-C18:2 (CLA) than conventional milk.
The authors writes that the method is valid for German milk. The proposed limit may vary in milk and their products with foreign origin.
 Molkentin, Joachim: Authentication of Organic Milk Using δ13C and the α-Linolenic Acid Content of Milk Fat. J. Agric. Food Chem., Article ASAP. Doi: 10.1021/jf8022029 Publication Date (Web): January 8, 2009
16.01.2009: High quality of meat from animals raised on biodiverse pastures 
Prof Henry Buller and colleagues 2008 compared meat quality of animals grazing on natural grasslands and animals raised on intensive systems.
The researchers found lamb meat from biodiverse pastures to have increased vitamin E content with improved shelf life, compared with conventional lamb meat. Higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid were also associated with the biodiverse origin, and the negative taste of grilled meat, caused by the rumen fermentation product skatole was decreased.
The authors recommend the Longhorn variety of cattle for biodiverse pastures and conclude that
biodiverse grasslands farming is good for the environment, the consumer and the producer. They call for more support from the policy makers and underlay the necessity to find ways to label and promote meat reared on biodiverse principals.
 Buller, Henry; Morris, Carol; Kirwan, James; Wood, Jeff; Hopkins, Alan; Dunn, Robert:
Eating biodiversity: An investigation of the links between quality food production and biodiversity protection. Rural Economy and Land Use Programme (RELU). ESRC End of Award Report, RES-224-25-0041 (2008)
15.01.2009: Coke Sued for Fraudulent Claims on Obesity-Promoting “VitaminWater” says CSPI 
The Coca-Cola company markets VitaminWater as a healthful alternative to soda. According to CSPI the 33 grams of sugar in each bottle of VitaminWater do more to promote obesity, diabetes, and other health problems than the vitamins in the drinks do to perform the advertised benefits listed on the bottles.
CSPI executive director Michael F. Jacobson recommends consumers to get vitamins from real food, or take an inexpensive supplement.
 Coke Sued for Fraudulent Claims on Obesity Promoting “VitaminWater”: vitamins + water + sugar + hype = soda – bubbles. January 15, 2009
14.01.2009: Beef marinated in beer or red wine had reduced levels of cancerogenous heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) during pan-frying
Ferreira and colleagues 2008 assessed the effect of beer or red wine marinades on the reduction of heterocyclic aromatic amines formation in pan-fried beef. The authors report a reduction of 88% of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine , and 40% of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline after 6 h of marinating with beer or with wine, compared with not marinated beef. The authors stress that the levels of 4,8-DiMeIQx, which is mutagenic, could only be reduced with the beer marinade.
They concluded that beer marinating is most efficient in reduction of heterocyclic aromatic amines for pan-frying. Odor, colour and quality were not altered by beer marinating.
 Melo, Armindo; Viegas, Olga; Petisca, Catarina; Pinho, Olivia; Ferreira, Isabel M. P. L. V. O.: Effect of Beer/Red Wine Marinades on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Pan-Fried Beef. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (22), pp 10625–10632. Doi: 10.1021/jf801837s. October 24, 2008
14.01.2009: Nanomechanical detection of antibiotic-mucopeptide binding important tool of antibiotic drug research 
Rachel McKendry and colleagues 2008, developed silicon-based cantilevers, which are nanostructured levers examining how vancomycin binds to the surface of the bacteria. The authors report that when the antibiotic attaches to the cell wall of the bacteria, it generates a surface stress on the bacteria which can be detected by a tiny bending of the levers. This stress contributes to the disruption of the cell walls and the breakdown of the bacteria.
According to the authors, antibiotic resistant bacteria went through a simple mutation which deletes a single hydrogen bond from the structure of their cell walls, turning it difficult for the antibiotic to attach to the cell wall of the bacteria turning it ineffective.
The authors stress that the research on cantilever sensors suggests that the cell wall is disrupted by the combination of local antibiotic-mucopeptide binding and the spatial mechanical influences on the cells’ structure. This may help to develop new antibiotics and be useful for drug screening.
 Ndieyira1, J. W.; Watari1, M.; Donoso-Barrera1, A.; Zhou, D.; Vogtli1,M.; Batchelor,M.; Cooper, M.A.; Strunz1, T.; Horton, M.A.; Abell, C.A.; Rayment, T.; Aeppli1l, G.; McKendry, R.A.: Nanomechanical Detection of Antibiotic Mucopeptide Binding in a Model for Superbug Drug Resistance. Nat Nanotechnol. 2008 Nov;3(11):691-6. Epub 2008 Oct 12.
12.01.2009: Particulate Emission From Natural Gas Burning stove tops and water heaters 
According to Minutolo and colleagues 2008, burning natural gas in home appliances such as stove tops and water heaters ultrafine airborne particles with diameters in the 1 nm to 10 nm size range are formed.
In home-heating burners these particles, formed in the flame region are oxidized in the post-oxidation region, presenting no hazard. However, domestic stove tops and water boilers do not have a post-oxidation region. The emit, therefore, a high number of hazardous particles. Soot particles with size larger than 10 nm are not formed.
Small particles are the most dangerous 
Because of the size of the particle, they can penetrate the deepest part of the lungs. Larger particles are generally filtered in the nose and throat and do not cause problems, but particulate matter smaller than about 10 micrometers can settle in the bronchi and lungs and cause health problems. Similarly, particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers tend to penetrate into the gas-exchange regions of the lung, and very small particles (< 100 nanometers) may pass through the lungs to affect other organs. Particles smaller than 100 nanometers can pass through cell membranes and migrate into other organs, including the brain. It has been suggested that particulate matter can cause similar brain damage as that found in Alzheimer patients.
Particles emitted from modern diesel engines are typically in the size range of 100 nanometers. In addition, these soot particles also carry carcinogenic components like benzopyrenes adsorbed on their surface.
Long-term exposure to fine particulate 
Pope and colleagues 2002 found that particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers leads to high plaque deposits in arteries, causing vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.
Fine particulate and sulfur oxide--related pollution were associated with all-cause, lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary mortality. The authors concluded that long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. The authors stress that the legislative limits for engines are unsuitable to protect against particulate matter.
Toxicology of particulate matter 
According to Valavanides and colleagues 2008 the inflammatory injury, oxidative damage, and other biological effect are stronger for fine and ultrafine particles, such those from exhaust particles from automobiles because they can penetrate deeper into the airways of the respiratory tract. These particles pollute urban areas.
The authors call for studies on the cytotoxic and carcinogenic mechanisms of particulate matters in the lungs. They stress the importance to understand the formation of particulate matter by internal combustion engines and other sources.
 Minutolo, Patrizia; D'Anna, Andrea; Commodo, Mario; Pagliara, Rocco; Toniato, Guiseppe; Accordini, Claudio: Emission of Ultrafine Particles from Natural Gas Domestic Burners. Environmental Engineering Science, 2008; 25 (10): 1357 DOI: 10.1089/ees.2007.0188
 Wikipedia: Particulate matter
 Pope, C.A. 3rd; Burnett, R.T.; Thun, M.J.; Calle, E.E.; Krewski, D.; Ito, K; Thurston, G.D.: Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution. JAMA. 2002;287(9):1132-1141. Doi:10.1001/jama.287.9.1132
 Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni T.: Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2008 Oct-Dec;26(4):339-62.
11.01.2009: Leptin- sensitizing agents to treat obesity 
Leptin is an appetite-suppressing hormone secreted by fat tissue. It was proposed to treat obesity, however, obese persons were found to develop leptin resistance.
Umut Ozcan and colleagues 2009 found that elevated leptin secretion increased the stress on a part of the brain, the endoplasmic reticulum, which assembles proteins and folds them into their appropriate configurations. Under stress the endoplasmic reticulum produces unfolded protein in the hypothalamus of obese mice resulting in results in severe leptin resistance and obesity.
The stress triggers a signaling cascade, "unfolded protein response", that tries to relieve the stress by increasing the level of molecular "chaperones," which assist in protein folding, and by blocking more proteins from coming in.
The authors suggest a new treatment of obesity with chemical chaperones, 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA), and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), which were found to decrease endoplasmic reticulum stress and act as leptin-sensitizing agents.
 Lale Ozcan, Ayse Seda Ergin, Allen Lu, Jason Chung, Sumit Sarkar, Duyu Nie, Martin G. Myers, Umut Ozcan: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Plays a Central Role in Development of Leptin Resistance. Cell Metabolism, Volume 9, Issue 1, 35-51, 7 January 2009
10.01.2009: Evolution of drug resistance in H5N1 avian flue 
Governments and organizations stockpile antiviral drugs such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) to be prepared to control a possible influenza A H5N1 pandemic. Hill and colleagues 2008, however, warn that lineages of H5N1 are becoming resistant to adamantane derivatives, and a few lineages are resistant to oseltamivir.
The authors stress that the rise of resistance to adamantanes, including the nonprescription drugs amantadine and rimantadane, is linked to Chinese farmers adding the drugs to chicken feed as a flu preventative. If Tamiflu is ever used in the manner of adamantanes, similar drug resistance may evolve.
According to the study, H5N1 drug resistance to adamantanes arose through novel genetic mutations rather than an exchange of RNA segments within cells, a process known as re-assortment.
The authors developed phylogenetic methods, which, added to molecular evolutionary analyses, and geographic visualization using Google Earth, provided a framework for analysis of globally distributed genomic data that can be used to monitor the evolution of drug resistance.
 Hill, A.W; Guralnick, R.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Habib, F.; Janies, D.: Evolution of drug resistance in multiple distinct lineages of H5N1 avian influenza. Infect Genet Evol. 2008 Oct 30.
09.01.2009: No evidence that Detox products are better than a glass of tap water
Detox diet is a marketing term used to describe diets that are purported to detoxify the body, by removal of toxins or other contaminants. Proponents claim they improve health, energy, resistance to disease, mental state, digestion, despite a lack of supporting evidence, as well as aiding in weight loss. Many scientists, dietitians, and doctors, however, regard 'detox diets' as less effective than drinking a glass of water, and view 'detox diets' as generally harmless (unless nutritional deficiency results) but a waste of money. 
The charitable trust Sense About Science group say that products promoted as "detox" agents, highlighting a significant lack of evidence and a misleading use of scientific terminology.
They assessed 15 products products of bottled water, vitamins, shampoo, detox patches and body brushes. In this study the group found no evidence that products widely promoted to help the body "detox" work, many detox claims were "meaningless". The authors stress that if they were to have any action upon the body at all, the same could be achieved by drinking plenty of water, having a healthy balanced diet and plenty of sleep.
The Advertising Standards Authority said it would investigate such claims on a case-by-case basis if a complaint was made.
 Sense about Science: Making sense of chemical stories. A briefing for the lifestyle sector on misconceptions about chemicals
 Wikipedia: Detox diet
08.01.2009: Complementary and Alternative Medicine
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) defines CAM as a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine. Conventional medicine is medicine as practiced by holders of M.D. (medical doctor) or D.O. (doctor of osteopathy) degrees and by their allied health professionals, such as physical therapists, psychologists, and registered nurses.
Report of the the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine 
Kathi J. Kemper, MD, MPH, and colleagues from the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Provisional Section on Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine. Released a report aiming to define terms; to review the epidemiology; to list frequently used CAM modalities; to discuss medicolegal, ethical, and research implications; to describe education and training for CAM providers; to offer resources for additional learning regarding CAM; and to suggest communication strategies that clinicians may find helpful when discussing CAM with patients and families.
The terms holistic medicine or integrative medicine is being increasingly substituted for CAM.
In their report Kemper and colleagues describe a model of holistic care which includes:
Biochemical components: such as medications, dietary supplements, vitamins, minerals, herbal remedies.
Lifestyle: including nutrition, exercise/rest, environmental therapies such as heat, ice, music, vibration, and light, mind-body therapies (behavior management, meditation, hypnosis, biofeedback, counseling)
Biomechanical components: included are massage and bodywork, chiropractic and osteopathic adjustment, and surgery.
Bioenergetic therapies: may include acupuncture, radiation therapy, magnets, Reiki, healing touch, qi gong, therapeutic touch, prayer, homeopathy.
Homeopathy: was developed by Samuel Hahnemann in 1790 It is based on the theory that an ill person can be treated using a substance that can produce, in a healthy person, symptoms similar to those of the illness. According to Hahnemann, serial dilution, with shaking between each dilution, removes the toxic effects of the substance, while the essential qualities are retained by the diluent (water, sugar, or alcohol).
UK regulation on homeopathics 
The National Rules for Homoeopathic Products 2006 No. 1952 came into force that permit homeopathic products to make medical claims but exempt them from providing any scientific evidence that they are effective. According to the Sense About Science Group, the regulation of medicines moves away from science and from clear, meaningful information for the public.
The UK’s licensing body, the Medicine and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), with the introduction of the new rules for homeopathy, accepts homeopathic provings as evidence of efficacy. A 'proving' is the method homeopaths use to determine the symptoms a substance causes (with a view to treating diseases with similar symptoms). Provings are not carried out on the finished product and are nothing to do with efficacy, says the group. 
Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) 
The Current Procedural Terminology code (CPT) accurately describes medical, surgical, and diagnostic services and is designed to communicate uniform information about medical services and procedures among physicians, coders, patients, accreditation organizations, and payers for administrative, financial, and analytical purposes. Despite the public's increasing use of CAM therapies and willingness to pay out-of-pocket for these services, health insurers have had difficulty including them in their plans because of variation in credentialing, difficulties with accounting, and because there are so few Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes that cover these services.
The White House and Complementary and Alternative Medicine 
In 2000, the US President and Congress assembled and mandated the White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Policy to make administrative and legislative recommendations to maximize the benefits of CAM for Americans.
Until recently, the primary response of Federal, state, and local health care regulatory agencies to this phenomenon was to restrict access to and delivery of CAM services to protect the public from unproven and potentially dangerous treatments. Since the early 1990s, however, scientific evidence has begun to emerge suggesting that some CAM approaches and products, when used appropriately, can be beneficial for treating illness and promoting health. As this evidence is collected and disseminated to the wider health care community and the public, it should provide a reliable basis for making policy decisions that will facilitate the public's access to safe and effective CAM approaches and products.
FDA regulating Complementary and Alternative Medicine 
Complementary and Alternative Medicine related issues are regulated by the FDA through The Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), classifying them as dietary supplements.
The law defines dietary supplements in part as products taken by mouth that contain a "dietary ingredient." Dietary ingredients include vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbs or botanicals, as well as other substances that can be used to supplement the diet.
Generally, manufacturers do not need to register their products with FDA nor get FDA approval before producing or selling dietary supplements. Manufacturers must make sure that product label information is truthful and not misleading.
FDA's post-marketing responsibilities include monitoring safety, e.g. voluntary dietary supplement adverse event reporting, and product information, such as labeling, claims, package inserts, and accompanying literature. The Federal Trade Commission regulates dietary supplement advertising.
The DSHEA also regulates informational materials, the labeling of dietary supplements. Claims to prevent, treat, or cure a specific disease are expressly prohibited, unless they are explicitly approved. 
 The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM): What is CAM?
 Kemper, Kathi J.; Vohra, Sunita; Walls, Richard, the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine the Provisional Section on Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine: The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pediatrics. From the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics, Dec 2008; 122: 1374 - 1386.
 Current Procedural Terminology
 White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Policy. Final report 2002.
 FDA: New Dietary Ingredients in Dietary Supplements - Background for Industry
 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. Public law No. 103–417 (1994). Accessed November 29, 2006.
 The Medicines for Human Use (National Rules for Homoeopathic Products) Regulations 2006 No.1952.
 Lord Taverne: Medicines for Human Use (National Rules for Homeopathic Products) Regulations 2006. 26 Oct 2006 : Column 1328. UK Parliament.
07.01.2009: Study finds no reduction of cancer risk with vitamin C, E and beta carotin supplementation
Jennifer Lin and colleagues 2009 assessed the prevention of cancer due to a diet high in fruits and vegetables, rich in antioxidants.
Supplementation of vitamin C (500 mg of ascorbic acid daily), natural-source vitamin E (600 IU of alfa-tocopherol every other day), and beta carotene (50 mg every other day) during an average 9.4 years of treatment no statistically significant effects of use of any antioxidant on total cancer incidence was found. Duration and combined use of the three antioxidants also had no effect on cancer incidence and cancer death.
The authors concluded that supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, or beta carotene offers no overall benefits in cancer prevention.
Commentary on the study of Lin and colleagues 2009 
Demetrius Albanes, of the National Cancer Institute, stresses that negative trial data reported by Lin, the trend for a reduction in colon cancer with vitamin E supplementation, found in other studies, should not be forgotten. Beta carotene found by Linn to be associated with a modest excess of lung cancer, is consistent with previous reports. Overall Albanes says that even negative findings such as those of the Linn study add to a better understanding of the causes of cancer.
 Lin, Jennifer; Cook, Nancy R.; Albert, Christine; Zaharris, Elaine ;Gaziano, J. Michael; Van Denburgh, Martin; Buring, Julie E.;Manson, JoAnn E. : Vitamins C and E and Beta Carotene Supplementation and Cancer Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2009 101(1):14-23; doi:10.1093/jnci/djn438 http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/djn438
 Albanes, Demetrius: Vitamin Supplements and Cancer Prevention: Where Do Randomized Controlled Trials Stand? Journal of the National Cancer Institute Advance Access published on December 30, 2008. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2009 101: 2-4; doi:10.1093/jnci/djn453
06.01.2009: US Government advisory science panels are infiltrated by stakeholder representatives 
The Center for Science in the Public Interest CSPI released in January 2009 the report of an investigation which says that unbalanced science panels across the government give industry inappropriate influence over federal regulatory policy.
According to the report government advisory committees that advise agencies on scientific issues are supposed to be made up of scientists without financial ties to industry.
The report criticises that the National Coal Council, advising the Secretary of Energy on the feasibility of clean coal technology, has at least 15 members with financial ties to coal companies, whose fate depends on the technology's favorable review, says the report.
The energy industry is the Wind Turbines Guidelines Advisory Committee at the Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service, which should assess the risk of wind turbines to wildlife is also stacked with stakeholder representatives.
The National Organic Standards Board at the Department of Agriculture, which determines what foods and substances can be called organic is filled up with representatives from stakeholder groups and corporations. Other committees lacking balance are the Sporting Conservation Council, the Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee and the Grain Inspection Advisory Committee.
The report concluded that over the course of the Bush Administration, government science panels have become increasingly influenced by industry. This includes hundreds of federal agency advisory committees whose deliberations affect the health and safety of the American people with same problems.
CSPI calls to restore the integrity of the federal advisory committee system, correcting balance, conflict of interest screening and transparency. An executive order from incoming President Barack Obama could clarify and strengthen the existing Federal Advisory Committee Act, says the CSPI. 
CSPI: Govt. Science Panels Skewed Toward Industry, Says Report. CSPI Urges Legislation to Restore Balance
 CSPI: Twisted Advice. Federal Advisory Committees are Broken. Integrity in Science Program Manager Kirsten Stade. January 2009.
06.01.2009: Researchers call for tight regulation of phosphate as food ingredient citing possible lung cancer risk 
The use of phosphates in foods increased from 470mg per day in the average adult diet in 1990s, to as much as 1000 mg per day for present time. Phosphates are added to increases water retention and improve texture in meats, sausages, cheeses, beverages and bakery goods.
Dr Myung-Haing Cho and colleagues found that feeding K-rasLA1 mice with a diet containing 1.0% inorganic phosphates for 4 weeks, increased the size of the tumours and stimulated growth of the tumours, compared with lower or none phosphate supplementation.
High dietary inorganic phosphate strongly activates Akt signaling, which plays an important role in the lung tumorigenesis. The authors stress that the results of their study suggest that elevated phosphates may activate the Akt signaling in the normal lungs and increase lung tumorigenesis.
According to the authors disruption of Akt signaling pathways in lung tissues can confer a normal cell with malignant properties. They call for a careful regulation of dietary inorganic phosphates for lung cancer prevention as well as treatment.
 Jin, Hua; Xu, Cheng-Xiong; Lim, Hwang-Tae; Park, Sung-Jin; Shin, Ji-Young; Chung, Youn-Sun; Park, Se-Chang; Chang, Seung-Hee; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Kee-Ho; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Ha, Yoon-Cheol; Chae, Chan-Hee; Beck Jr, George R.; Cho, Myung-Haing: High Dietary Inorganic Phosphate Increases Lung Tumorigenesis and Alters Akt Signaling. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 179. pp. 59-68, (2009) Doi: 10.1164/rccm.200802-306OC
05.01.2009: Packaging design make junk food look healthy 
CSPI says that the Gerber Products Company, owned by Nestlé, has drawn harsh criticism from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit on December 22. S. Court of Appeals for using pictures of real fruit to market a gummi-bear-like candy formerly called “Fruit Juice Snacks.”
The use of the words “Fruit Juice” juxtaposed alongside images of fruits such as oranges, peaches, strawberries, and cherries was challenged. Appellants contended that this juxtaposition was deceptive because the product contained no fruit juice from any of the fruits pictured on the packaging and because the only juice contained in the product was white grape juice from concentrate. 
The Court found the labelling deceiving because it presented images of oranges, cherries and strawberries, though the leading ingredients are corn syrup and sugar. the Court stated consumers should not be “expected to look beyond misleading representations on the front of the box to discover the truth from the ingredient list in small print on the side of the box.
According to Bruce Silverglade, CSPI director of legal affairs, the Court’s decision is a warning to all companies that try to make junk food look healthy by depicting nutritious fruits, vegetables and whole grains on the labels of sugary, high-calorie snacks.
 CSPI: Court Scolds Gerber for Marketing Candy as "Fruit Juice Snacks".
Lawsuit Against Company to Move Forward.Jan 2, 2008.
 United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit: Nakia Williams versus, individually and
on behalf of all others similarly situated; Rita Tabiu, Plaintiffs-Appellants versus Gerber Products Company, a Michigan corporation. December 22, 2008
04.01.2009: Nanoparticles of titanium nitride in PET bottles approved in the EU
The CEF Panel evaluates substances intended for use in materials in contact with food according to Articles 8 and 9 of the Regulation (EC) No.1935/2004 on materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs.
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that are deliberately introduced into the food chain, including ingredients and additives, fertilizers and pesticides were discussed by the Panel of the European Food Safety Agency.
In a publication of 16 December 2008 the use of titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles Cas Nr. 25583-20-4 in a material used to make polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic drinks bottles no toxicological concern was found, and the way is open for its allowance in the European Union. Imposed restriction: Only to be used in PET bottles up to 20 mg/kg. This opens the door for a flood of approval of nanomaterials in foodstuffs.
Titanium nitride (TiN), nanoparticles, is intended to be used as an additive in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles up to 20 mg/kg. The final product is intended to come into contact with all types of liquid foodstuffs for typical hot fill/pasteurization and/or long time storage at room temperature.
The three mentioned substances groups were included in the SCF List 3 which contain
substances for which an ADI or a TDI could not be established, but where
the present use could be accepted. The Panel classifies substances according to the “SCF list” since in the past the evaluation of substances used in food contact materials was undertaken by the Scientific
Committee on Food (SCF). The definitions of the various SCF lists and the abbreviations used are given in the appendix. See: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/Scientific_Opinion/cef_op_ej888-890_21stlist_en.pdf?ssbinary=true
Allianz-OECD co-operation calls for minimising exposure to nanoparticles 
In a co-operation with the OECD the Allianz report notes that in respect to hazards, there is enough evidence to suggest that exposure to nanoparticles, particularly to those insoluble in water, should be minimised as a precaution.
Two groups of substances used as polymer production aids for food packaging materials 
Sulphosuccinic acid, alkyl (C4- C20) or cyclohexyl diesters, sodium salts: These substances are members of a group of substances used as polymer production aids in emulsion polymerisation, in a wide range of polymers and copolymers [mainly poly(vinyl chloride) PVC, polystyrene, polyacrylates and poly(vinyl acetate)], at concentrations of 1-4%.
Sulphosuccinic acid, alkyl (C4-C20) or cyclohexyl diesters, sodium salts were considered as safe under the restriction of 5 mg/kg food.
Finished materials are intended to come into contact with all types of food under room temperature conditions. Evaluation:A significant part of the emulsifier (~70%) will remain in the final polymer and may migrate into food in contact with the plastic material.
Sulphosuccinic acid monoalkyl (C10-C16) polyethyleneglycol esters and their salts: Sulphosuccinic acid monoalkyl (C10-C16) polyethyleneglycol esters, sodium salts are stable under the intended processing conditions (up to 200°C).
These substances are soluble in water and are partly eliminated during the process. However, as shown in experiments for determination of residual content in PVC materials, a significant part of the emulsifier (~20%) remains in the final polymer and may migrate into food in contact with the plastic material. These substances are considered as safe under the restriction of 2 mg/kg food
 21st list of substances for food contact materials - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids (CEF)
Question number: EFSA-Q-2005-151, EFSA-Q-2006-324, EFSA-Q-2006-323. Publication date: 16 December 2008
 Small Sizes that Matter: Opportunities and Risks of Nanotechnologies, Joint report of the Allianz Center for Technology and the OECD International Futures Programme, ed. Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser, OECD.org 18 July 2007
04.1.2009 Green Fluorescent Protein [1 ]
Green Fluorescent Protein was discovered and developed by Martin Chalfie, Osamu Shimomura and Roger Y. Tsien as a companion protein to aequorin, the chemiluminescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. It has become a valious marker of gene expression and protein targeting in intact cells and organisms, and may be used as physiological indicators, biosensors, and photochemical memories. The three researchers were awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry on 8 October 2008
It has a major excitation peak at a wavelength of 395 nm and a minor one at 475 nm. Its emission peak is at 509 nm which is in the lower green portion of the visible spectrum.
GFP has a typical beta barrel structure, consisting of one β-sheet with alpha helix(s) containing the chromophore running through the center. Inward facing sidechains of the barrel induce specific cyclization reactions in the tripeptide Ser65–Tyr66–Gly67 that lead to chromophore formation. This process of post-translational modification is referred to as maturation. The hydrogen bonding network and electron stacking interactions with these sidechains influence the color of wtGFP and its numerous derivatives. The tightly packed nature of the barrel exclude solvent molecules, protecting the chromophore fluorescence from quenching by water. 
Real-time gene expression Monitoring 
Grover and colleagues 2008 Researchers from the marked fruit fly genes with Green Fluorescent Protein and detected the green glow of the active gene with a camera equipped with a special filter. A second camera system tracked the movement of each fly in three dimensions. According to the authors genes which are responsible for certain behaviours may thus be tracked. The researchers hope to get new insights on ageing in the fruit fly and biological processes.
The authors note that two genes, hsp70 and hsp22, which respond to oxidative stress, spiked in the hours before the death of a fly. This suggests a sharp increase in oxidative stress as the fly began dying of natural causes. The phase of hsp gene expression relative to fly activity levels was different for each fly, and remained the same throughout the life span.
Linking Green Fluorescent Protein to any gene, its expression change may be monitored automatically and can be correlated with the animal activity, behavior and mortality.
Green Fluorescent Protein unveils details of the physiology of bacteria 
Sothward and Surette 2002 describe the use of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria which can be expressed as a fluorescent protein in any other organism and became the most common reporters in use today. GFP is used for characterizing spatial and temporal dynamics of gene expression, protein localization and protein-protein interactions in living cells and bacteria.
Green fluorescent Protein turns pigs green 
Scientists from National Taiwan University's Department of Animal Science and Technology created pigs which are green through and through by adding genetic material from jellyfish into a normal pig embryo. The eyes, teeth and trotters of the pigslook green, and their skin has a greenish tinge. In the dark, a blue light makes them glow. The researchers hope the green pigs will mate with ordinary female pigs to create a new generation.
 Tsien, Roger Y.: The green fluorescent protein (PDF). Annu Rev Biochem 67: 509–44. 1998. Doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.67.1.509.
 Wikipedia: Green Fluorescent Protein
 Grover, D.; Yang, J.; Tavare, S.; Tower, J.: Simultaneous tracking of fly movement and gene expression using GFP. BMC Biotechnol. 2008 Dec 16;8(1):93. [Epub ahead of print]
 Southward, C.M.; Surette, M.G.: The dynamic microbe: green fluorescent protein brings bacteria to light. Mol Microbiol. 2002 Sep 5(5):1191-6.
 Hogg, Chris: Taiwan breeds green-glowing pigs BBC News, Hong Kong. 12.Jan 2006.