The full genome sequence of the tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, has been decoded and is published in May 2012 in the Journal Nature. Researchers aim to improve yield, nutrition, disease resistance, taste and colour of the tomato and other crops. The "Heinz 1706" tomato variety was used for the sequencing performed by the Tomato Genomics Consortium, an international collaboration between 14 countries. 
Teschendorff et al 2012 demonstrated that epigenetic changes in normal cells can predict the risk of cancer. The DNA methylation (DNAm) profile, in combination with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, are a key factor in determining cervical cancer risk. 
According to the UK Royal Society “Synthetic biology is an emerging area of research that can broadly be described as the design and construction of novel artificial biological pathways, organisms or devices, or the redesign of existing natural biological systems.”
Synthetic biology aims to design and construct new biological functions and systems not found in nature. 
Dunn et al. 2012 describe a multi-species microarray platform and the array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) of the genomes of several Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus, S. mikatae, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. kluyveri and S. castellii. 
The technique is able to identify variations in copy number among different yeasts and determines the evolutionary relationships without sequencing the whole genome.
A novel swine-originated influenza A virus known as pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was first isolated from humans in Mexico in April 2009, the worldwide pandemic resulted in more than 18,000 deaths. Swine, turkeys, ferrets, cats, and cheetahs, were found to have been infected. Transmission from humans to pigs were reported. In August 2010, the World Health Organization stated that the pandemic caused by this virus had ended. 
Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast disease. It is a plant-pathogenic fungus and is member of the Magnaporthe grisea complex which contains at least two biological species that have clear genetic differences and do not interbreed. Magnaporthe oryzae and Magnaporthe grisea are complex members. 
Five tomato mutants of a transgenic, Rx1-expressing ‘Micro-Tom’ line, were found by Sturbois et al 2012 to be affected in the Rx-mediated resistance against Potato virus X (PVX). The mutant tomatoes failed to develop lethal systemic necrosis upon infection with the virulent PVX-KH2 isolate and accumulation of the virus took place in all mutnats. 
Shiping Wang and his group describe genes associated with response to increasing temperature. They note that these genes are closely related to the disease resistance gene Rice Xa3/Xa26 encoding a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase-type protein against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. 
According to Sapone et al. 2010, an increasing number of consumers look for gluten free food products, following the current awareness about gluten reactions. The authors describe the three main forms of gluten reactions: Allergic (wheat allergy), autoimmune (coeliac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, and gluten ataxia), and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity). 
New nomenclature and classifications are being suggested by Sapone's group.