| FEBRUARY 2009
OurFood - NEWS
Here food related news are posted.
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19.02.2009: Bacteria, such as Klesiella pneumoniae developing resistance to carbapenems 
Carbapenems, useful to treat infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria, is now getting ineffective by bacteria developing enzymes called Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), which inactivate them. KPC-producing organisms can spread inside hospitals as well as in general population.
Treatment of KPCs often requires the use of tigecycline and the polymyxins. This epidemic of KPCs Gram-negative resistance reside on transferable plasmids and can hydrolyse all penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Increased awareness and intensified infection control practices are the keys to curtail the spread of this terrifying antimicrobial resistance.
The first KPC-isolate was detected in 1995 in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . KPC-resistance is most frequent in Klebsiella pneumoniae and seems to have spread to the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Proteus, Serratia, Salmonella, and Citrobacter.
 Jean B. Patel: Emerging Carbapenem Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli. CDC Presentation.
 Livermore DM.:Bacterial resistance to carbapenems. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995;390:25-47.
17.02.2009: Functional foods with unclear benefits suffer the impact of financial crisis 
According to UK Financial Times the so-called "functional foods" movement with exotic products such as flavour and vitamin enhanced waters may be severely hit by the financial crisis leaving less money to be spent by the consumer.
A yoghurt with ingredients like borage oil, vitamin E and green tea antioxidants It is supposed to "nourish" the skin, while claiming that it “nourish your skin from within” entering the field of nutritional cosmetics. Experts say that beauty brands are out of place at the food department of a supermarket. A pharmacy distribution suits better for products with undefined claims. 
Confusing range of fruit drinks, with and without milk
Special marketing pressure is exerted on drinks for children. A confusing constellation of claims like GM free, no preservatives added no whole soy milk, but soy protein isolate is used to avoid bitter taste, vitamins and calcium are added. 
Fruit flavoured waters and ice cream drinking yoghurts and even chewing gum with special health claims are being marketed by global food companies.
Other drinks call on the negative calorie effect (thermogenesis) of epigallocatechin gallate EGCG found in green tea extract which is supposed to speed up the metabolism and increase energy expenditure when taken together with caffeine. These drinks burn 60 to 100 calories, says the producer. A cup of green tea and a cup of coffee during the day have the same effect heralded by the producer of sophisticated drinks.  
Mass market brands
The consumer is forced to look after packaged staple foods at fair price, which are found in the mass production segment with benefits located at daily needs. Non-essential products such as bottled water, drinking yoghurts and chewing gum are good items to spare money.
 UK Financial Times: Taste for Danone's Essensis yoghurt dwindles. By Jenny Wiggins in London. February 3 2009 02:00.
 FitSugar: Essensis: Healthy From the Inside Out. 02.07.2007
 Soya, Information about Soy and Soya products.: AdeZ Fruit Juice and Soya
 New Enviga and Trade; Proven to burn Calories: Sparkling Green Tea Creates a Brand New Category That Combines Great Taste and Negative Calories.
CSPI: Enviga Study Casts Doubt on Calorie Burning & Weight-Loss Claims. Companies' Own Study Shows Many People May Expend Less Energy-Not More-After Drinking New Beverage. 12 February 2007
14.02.2009: Fructose-sweetened beverages rises blood levels of triglycerides in obese people 
Karen L. Teff and colleagues, in a study from 2009, found that drinking fructose-sweetened beverages increased triglyceride levels up to 200 % in obese people in comparison to glucose-sweetened beverages. Fructose containing beverages were also associated with less insulin secretion and blunted diurnal leptin profile. The increase of triglycerides was more accentuated in persons with insulin resistance increasing therefore an adverse metabolic profile. Increased levels of triglycerides are linked to heart diseases and obesity.
The authors call for more studies on the effect of fructose and the link between pure fructose and high fructose corn syrup which consists of consists of 55 per cent fructose and 42 per cent glucose, according to the Corn Refiners Association .
This study backs the theory that the body processes fructose in a different form as it does with other sugars. The consume of sweet soft drinks and foods high in fructose corn syrup and sugar, such as fruit yoghurt, candies and energy bars should be reduced or completely avoided because of their content of fructose and high calories. Changing once nutritional preferences to mineral water, or tap water, and consuming fruits and vegetables the taste of natural products is rediscovered.
Leptin profile 
Leptin is a hormone which plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including appetite and metabolism. Next to a biomarker for body fat, serum leptin levels also reflect individual energy balance.
Although leptin is a circulating signal that reduces appetite, in general, obese people have an unusually high circulating concentration of leptin. These people are said to be resistant to the effects of leptin, in much the same way that people with type 2 diabetes are resistant to the effects of insulin. The high sustained concentrations of leptin from the enlarged adipos stores result in leptin desensitization. The pathway of leptin control in obese people might be flawed at some point so the body doesn't adequately receive the satiety feeling subsequently to eating.
More research on how fructose acts on the pathway of leptin are needed for a better understanding the causes of obesity.
 Teff, Karen L.;Grudziak, JoanneKaren L. Teff; Townsend, Raymond R.; Dunn, Tamara N.; Grant, Ryan W.; Adams, Sean H.; Keim, Nancy L.;Cummings, Bethany P. ; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.: Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Rapid Electronic Publication, available online 10 February 2009, doi:doi:10.1210/jc.2008-2192
 About HFCS: HFCS (Highly Fattening or Crappy Science?) Empty calories, yes, but demon, no; the truth and friction behind high-fructose corn syrup.
 Wikipedia: Leptin
08.02.2009: Fat tissue negative feedback to the brain may be important in obesity understanding 
Readily available energy storage in form of glycogen may be worn off by exercise or by hunger periods. Burning fat is then activated. The sympathetic nervous system, used to regulate functions of the body, independent of concious thoughts, communicates with the adipose cells to initiate, continue or stop the fat burning.
It already had been known that peripheral pseudounipolar dorsal root ganglion sensory cells innervate fat tissue and play a role in the short-term burning of fat . The central nervous system projections of the white adipose tissue were now studied by the authors.
Following their data, the authors suggest the existence of a sensory adipose tissue pathway to the brain important in the negative feedback control of lipid mobilization. This pathway stops lipolysis when no more energy is needed. This process seems to be involved with the long-term burning of fat and obesity.
 Song, C. Kay; Schwartz, Gary J.; Bartness, Timothy J.: Anterograde Transneuronal Viral Tract Tracing Reveals Central Sensory Circuits From White Adipose Tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol (December 24, 2008). Doi:10.1152/ajpregu.90786.2008
03.02.2009: German farmer defeated a marketing giant 
Georg Heitlinger, fought against a mighty lobby of the Central Marketing Association of the German Farmers (CMA), the Farmers's Association and the Government. The German Federal Constitutional Court decided the Marketing Fund Law from 1969 as unconstitutional. This law forced farmers to fund the Central Marketing. The verdict of the highest German court is the end of the CMA. 
Heitlinger's farm produces eggs. He has to pay a fee for every egg his farm produces, following the Marketing Fund Law (Absatzfondsgesetz). This money goes to the CMA which is in charge advertise German agrarian products and protect them from cheap import products.
The Farmers pay hundreds and hundreds of million Euro each year to the CMA without any profit.
Heitlinger saw at a Dutch packing station eggs for ALDI NORD stores being labelled with the CMA logo. Heitlinger's money was being used to pep up the products of his competitor from abroad.
On his long fight against the CMA and its logo, one lonely farmer, the German version of the French Bové, defeated the mighty organisation. Heitlinger says that farmer pay 30 Cents to the marketing fund for each 1000 eggs they produce. This is 0.6% of the price of the egg. In other products the fee amounts 0,4% of the price of the product. 
The Marketing Fund Law (Absatzfondsgesetz) 
The German law says that every agrarian product has to pay a fee for a central association which is in charge of marketing activities to promote sales of German products and increase its strength toward import products.
The CMA 
The CMA has its seat in Bonn with up to 150 employees. The organisation will have to undergo stringent structural modifications and concentrate its marketing efforts to boost export rather than promote homeland based consume. The CMA has to pay back 120 Million EUR to the farmers.
Critics on CMA 
The CMA in the name of German farmers published advertising who lack tight connections with agricultural products. The farmers do not see any benefit from the activities of CMA. In his homepage Heitlinger presents the arguments of his fight against the lobby of marketing associations and its logos.
CMA accused of sexist slogans 
Heitlinger says that sexist advertising is felt as funny somewhere. Many German farmers, however, feel themselves not well represented with such a forced marketing image for which they have to pay heavy fees.
The sexist slogans are: I like beautiful legs. Milk turns me on. You never forget the first time. Guys with coal (bucks) turn me on. See the CMA advertising: http://www.absatzfonds-abschaffen.de/sexistisch.html
Paralells to French movements
The unexpected victory of a small farmer against the system shows parallels to the the French environmentalist José Bové and rises hopes that a new reaction may reverse a negativ trend to monster marketing organisations and certification companies dominating the market. These logos and certification adverts are profitable primarily by multinational supermarket stores. One of these excess is the building of national and internartional logos for organic foodstuffs.
Lobbying of the food store chains were successful in establishing organic logos, certification companies and watered-down laws and directives. Small organic farm working under the original ideals of ecologic friendly farming could not compete with big monocultures of organic mass production for the big store chains.  
All marketing associations, the certification companies working on a global platform, their logos, label mount tags, advertisings and other marketing promotions should be put under close scrutiny. The real message, their effectiveness and the organisation which is in charge should be analysed. The fight of Heitling should inspire all experts and all consumers alike, to look who is behingd food logos.
 SpiegelOnline: Klage gegen Agrarverband Bauer Heitlinger bekaempft das System. 03.02.09.
 CMA: Absatzförderung ist auch zukünftig unverzichtbar
Verfassungswidrigkeit des Absatzfondsgesetzes erfordert Alternativen. 03.02.2009
 Bauernstimme von April 2008, "CMA-Abgaben unterschiedlich hoch"
 Gesetz über die Errichtung eines zentralen Fonds zur Absatzförderung der deutschen Land- und Ernährungswirtschaft (Absatzfondsgesetz)
 Ueber die CMA
 Absatzfondsabschaffen.de: CMA abschaffen
 Absatzfondsabschaffen.de: Sexistische Werbung der CMA
 OurFood.com:  Soil Association air freighted organic food ensures benefits poor farmers?
OurFood-news.com: Mutated organic food from supermarkets
02.02.2009: Contaminated water is the main cause of cholera in Zimbabwe 
Cholera is a disease associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation and low medical care. The key to effective control is environmental sanitation.
The cholera bacteria (Vibrio cholerae) produces a toxin that inhibits the absorption of liquids by the body. It kills because it dehydrates the body.
Zimbabwe's cholera outbreak, one of the world's largest ever recorded, is far from being brought under control. An enhanced response is needed to urgently reverse an epidemic that has so far infected more than 60,000 people and killed more than 3,100 since August 2008.
Former Cholera outbreaks took place in Gorna in 1994 affecting Rwandan refugees and killed 50,000 people within 3 weeks. The outbreak in 2006 killed 2.700 persons in Angola.
The fish related cholera epidemic in Peru 1991 spread to Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, mainly in coastal cities but also inland. All other countries from South America and Central America reported cases as well.
Transmission of Cholera through contaminated food and water 
Cholera is mainly transmitted through contaminated water and food and is closely linked to inadequate environmental management. Recent interruptions to the water supplies, together with overcrowding, are aggravating factors in this epidemic.
Communities are being encouraged to protect themselves against cholera by adhering to proper food safety practices as well as to good personal hygiene. Early rehydration at home by using oral rehydration salts is paramount to diminishing mortality.
Mass chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics is strongly discouraged, as it has no effect on the spread of cholera, can have adverse effects by increasing antimicrobial resistance and provides a false sense of security.
How to reduce cholera risk in epidemic regions  
- Drink water that you have boiled for at least one minute or treated with chlorine or iodine. Other safe beverages include tea and coffee made with boiled or treated water, as well as drinks that have been bottled and sealed (such as bottled water, carbonated drinks, and sports drinks).
- Do not put ice in drinks, unless the ice is made from boiled or treated water.
- Eat only foods that have been thoroughly cooked and are still hot, or fruit that you have peeled yourself.
- Do not eat undercooked or raw fish or shellfish, including ceviche.
- Make sure all vegetables are cooked. Do not eat salads or other raw vegetables.
- Do not eat foods and drink beverages from street vendors.
 WHO: Global, national efforts must be urgently intensified to control Zimbabwe cholera outbreak
 WHO: Cholera in Zimbabwe 2.12.2008
 CDC: Cholera in Zimbabwe and Neighboring Countries. January 16, 2009
 CDC: Safe Food and water
02.02.2009: Antioxidant properties of garlic unveiled 
Garlic is known for its strong aroma taste and its antioxidant properties of allicin to scavenge free radicals. The food researchers Vaidya, Ingold and Pratt, found that allicin has to decompose generating sulfenic acid, which is the link between garlic and its health benefits
According to the authors, other plants of the same family of garlic, such as onions, leeks and shallots and garlic, also contain compounds similar to allicin, but do not have such strong antioxidant properties due to a slower rate of decomposition of the allicin analogs to the active sulfenic acid.
Biological and chemical stability of allicin differ, suggesting other active compounds 
Toyohiko Ariga and colleagues 2008 assessed the instability of allicin in water, ethanol and vegetable oil. Allicin from crushed fresh garlic is known to have antibacterial activity.
The authors determined the stability of allicin, in different solutions, looking at its antibacterial activity toward Escherichia coli. Allicin was found more stable in 20% alcohol than in water, and very unstable in vegetable oil. The authors suggest the existence of bioactive compounds other than allicin on account of the fact that, in the different extracts, the biological half-life of allicin was longer than the chemical one.
Enzyme alliinase increases healthy properties of garlic 
According to Galmarini and colleagues 2007 crushing garlic before cooking can reduce the loss of garlic's healthful properties, such as the in-vitro antiaggregatory activity of human blood platelets. The authors suggest that cooking inactivates the enzyme alliinase which catalyses the formation of allicin (allyl 2-propenylthiosulfinate), which then breaks down to form a variety of healthful organosulfur compound. Crushing or chopping garlic the alliinase can trigger the formation of allicin and its breakdown compounds before being inactivated by heat.
The study of Vaidya 2009 supports Ariga 2008 and Galmarini 2007 which suggest that decomposition products of allicin are the active compounds of the health benefits of garlic.
 Vaidya V, Ingold KU, Pratt DA.:Garlic: source of the ultimate antioxidants--sulfenic acids.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2009;48(1):157-60
 Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suma, Kaoru; Origuch, Kana i; Kumagai, Hitomi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko: Bioological and Chemical Stability of Garlic-Derived AllicinJ. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (11), pp 4229–4235. Doi: 10.1021/jf8000907
 Cavagnaro, Pablo F.; Camargo, Alejandra; Galmarini, Claudio R.; Simon, Philipp W.: Effect of Cooking on Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Antiplatelet Activity and Thiosulfinates Content. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (4), pp 1280–1288 Publication Date (Web): January 27, 2007 (Article) Doi: 10.1021/jf062587s
01.02.2009: Perfluorinated chemicals may reduce human fertility 
Fei, McLaughlin , Lipworth and Olsen found perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to be hormonal disruptors. Both belong to the group of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), and are used in food packagings, such as grease-resistant packaging for microwave popcorn bags and pizza boxes, other applications are in the field of pesticides, clothing, carpets and personal care products, industrial surfactans emulsifiers and products like Teflon. PFOS may be concentrated in the food chain.
According to the study, women who had higher levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in their blood took longer to become pregnant than women with lower levels. If the findings of Fei and colleagues will be reproduced by other studies, the compound will have to be added to the list of risk factors for infertility.
The authors say that Men’s sperm may also be affected by PFCs and contribute to the associations between PFC levels and time to pregnancy, however, however, data on PFC effects in fathers are not available yet.
The biological mechanisms by which exposure to PFOS and PFOA might reduce fertility are unknown, but interference in menstrual period indicate a possible pathway.
The authors concluded that exposure to PFOS and PFOA at levels plasma levels common in the general population in developed countries may reduce fecundity.
Data remain controversial 
Negri and colleagues, in a 2008 review found that research on health effects of perfluoroalkyl-compounds (PFOA) on possible endocrine disruption, thyroid and liver carcinogenicity, and development alteration remain controversial. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established in 2006 that every PFOA emission will be eliminated before 2015.
EFSA calls for more studies on PFOS and PFOA 
According to an opinion of the European Safety Agency in 2008, that fish seem to be an important source of human exposure to PFOS and also contribute to human exposure to PFOA. The agency, however, stresses that findings may be influenced by an over-representation of studies from polluted areas. The Panel of the EFSA concluded that the general population in Europe is unlikely to suffer negative health effects from PFOS and PFOA, but high consumers of fish might slightly exceed the TDI for PFOS. The Panel called for further research on contamination of foods and feeding stuffs of these compounds.
 Fei,Chunyuan; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Olsen, Jorn: Maternal levels of perfluorinated chemicals and subfecundity. Human Reproduction, Vol.1, No.1 pp. 1– 6, 2009 doi:10.1093/humrep/den490
 Negri, S.; Maestri, L.; Esabon, G.; Ferrari, M.; Zadra, P.; Ghittori, S.; Imbriani. M.: Characteristics, use and toxicity of fluorochemicals: review of the literature G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2008 Jan-Mar;30(1):61-74.
 EFSA: EFSA opinion on two environmental pollutants (PFOS and PFOA) present in food