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28.12.2007: Constituents of printing inks in beverages from cartons  
According to the German Federal Institute For Risk Assessment (BfR) the occurrence of a chemical in a food does not in itself constitute a risk to health. It is the harmfulness of the substance and the degree to which the consumer comes into contact with the substance that determines the scale of possible damage and the probability that it will occur. Residues of printing inks in foods may, therefore, be safe but they may equally constitute a serious risk to health.
Given the lack of data, a health assessment is frequently not possible at the present time. As the manufacturers bear responsibility for the safety of their products, they should do everything in their power to prevent the migration of substances of this kind to foods and put together the data needed for a health assessment.
The printing inks may contain the photo initiator isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX). Public agencies in Italy and Germany have detected residues of ITX in foods from cartons. Cartons for beverages like milk, cocoa or juice are often printed in different colours and have benn found to contain the ITX compound. Also olive oil has been found to be contaminated with ITX.
ITX is contained in UV-hardening printing inks. The cardboard used to make the packaging may be transported on rollers to the food filling plant and then moulded on site into the corresponding packaging. Constituents of the printing inks applied to the outer packaging material can, by means of spread (set-off), reach the inside that comes into contact with food.
Furthermore, there may be migration through the packaging material in the case of pre-moulded packaging unless effective barrier layers, e.g. aluminium foils, have been applied. BfR has examined the available toxicological data for the chemical isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX).
In line with the assessment scheme of the European Food Safety Authority and customary assessment practice at BfR and regarding substances used in the production of food commodities, the available data on the exclusion of genotoxicity are only sufficient to evaluate substances with a maximum migration level of 50 microgram/kg food. As, however, the ITX measurements in Germany revealed far higher levels, additional data would be needed for toxicological assessment. BfR does not have the necessary data on toxic effects, bioavailability or toxicokinetics of the substance.
Talks between the Plastics Committee and representatives of the printing ink industry at BfR revealed that no technology is currently available to prevent the migration of substances from printing inks to food through a set-off effect or because of penetration of the packaging material. Nor is this situation likely to change in the short term.
A larger manufacturer of beverage cartons has informed BfR that it switched to a new printing method for infant and baby food on 30 September 2005. It no longer uses any UVhardening printing inks in order to prevent migration of ITX from the package to the food. All packaging materials for milk and fat-containing products are to follow suit by 31 December 2005 and juice products by 31 January 2006.
The phenomenon of the migration of constituents from printing inks used on the outer packaging to foods as a consequence of both penetration of the packaging material and set-off to the inner packaging is a fundamental issue. Set-off cannot, in principle, be ruled out for any
packaging material processed on rollers or in stacks. Besides the data on ITX, BfR is also aware of migration findings from packaging to food for other photo initiators used in printing inks like 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethyl aminobenzoate and 4,4’-bis(diethylamino)-benzophenone and 4,4’-bis(dimethylamino)-benzophenone. BfR is, therefore, of the opinion that there is an urgent need to lay down requirements for the use of printing inks for food commodities on the European level.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is offering a guidebook for families and households to plan for infectious disease. HHS Secretary Michael Leavitt released Pandemic Influenza Planning: A Guide for Individuals and Families January 6.
 Constituents of printing inks in beverages from cartons. BfR Expert Opinion No. 044/2005, 25 November 2005
 Printing inks in foods: Health assessment not possible owing to lack of data
27.12.2007: Avian influenza in Brandenburg, near Berlin 
New cases of avian influenza by H5N1 virus were confirmed in various locations in Brandenburg, near Berlin. Health officials disposed a quarantine zone around the affected farms. All birds were culled. Cats and dogs should be kept indoor to avoid contact dead wild bird bearing H5N1 virus.
The European Union’s Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health issued the following recommendations for areas where H5N1 has been confirmed in wild birds:
All pet owners are advised to stay alert to reports of H5N1 infections in either migratory waterfowl or domestic poultry in their local area and the possible need to quarantine dogs and cats accordingly.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is offering a guidebook for families and households to plan for infectious disease. HHS Secretary Michael Leavitt released Pandemic Influenza Planning: A Guide for Individuals and Families January 6.  Guidebook
A specific vaccine for humans that is effective against avian influenza has not yet been approved. Based upon limited data, the Centers for Disease Control have suggested that the anti-viral medication Oseltamavir (brand name-Tamiflu) may be effective in preventing or treating avian influenza.
Please see the State Department's publication "Meeting the Challenge of Bird Flu" for more background on the U.S. commitment, the science and response to bird flu.  Meeting the challenge
 Ministerium für Ländliche Entwicklung, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz (MLUV): Vogelgrippe in Brandenburg.
 Guidelines for families and households to plan for infectious disease
 CDC: Meeting the challenge of bird flue.
E440 (i) Pectin or pectic acid
E440 (ii) Amidated pectin
The main use for pectin is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabilizer in food.
Pectin is present in aerial parts of plants as an important structural element, and has stabilizing
functions and controls water balance.
Pectin content of raw material
The raw material are the residues of juices, the peel off skin or trash-out of sunflower.
Pomace and sugar beet chips have around 15%, sunflower infructescence have 20% and citrus peels such as orange and grape fruit have 30% pectin. Other fruits such as mango, pumpkin, squash and vegetables such as chicory are being analysed for the production of pectin.
Pectin is used in the production of jams, confectionery articles, such as gummi bears without gelatine, baked and dairy products or in the nonfood industry, such as in cosmetics and pharmaceutics. Pectin is being highly appreciated by vegetarians, by certain ethnic groups classifying it as Halal or Kosher. It is also a response to the BSE crysis.
Pectin is a heteropolysaccharides with polygalacturonic acid as main component, partially esterified with methanol. Heteropolysaccharide are polysaccharides containing more than one type of saccharide, such as xylose, galactose or arabinose which are linked as side chains to the pectin macromolecules and the rupture of the main chain caused by rhamnose.
Classification of pectin
Pectins are divided into three groups on the basis of their different gelling properties.
In nature, around 80% of carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid are esterified with methanol. This proportion is decreased more or less during pectin extraction. The ratio of esterified to non-esterified galacturonic acid determines the behaviour of pectin in food applications. This is why pectins are classified as high- vs. low-ester pectins - or in short HM vs. LM-pectins, with more or less than half of all the galacturonic acid esterified.
High methoxyl pectin: has a degree of esterification of more than 50 % Acetylation prevents gel-formation but increases the stabilisation and emulsifying effects of pectin.
Low methoxyl pectin: has less than 50 % esterification. Its gelling properties does not depend on acid or sugar content. The salt of partially esterified pectins are called pectinates, if the degree of esterification is below 5% the salts are called pectates, the insoluble acid form, pectic acid.
Amidated pectin: is a modified form of pectin. Here, some of the galacturonic acid is converted with ammonia to carboxylic acid amide. These pectins are more tolerant of varying calcium concentrations that occur in use. Amid Pectins are produced by suspending dried pectin in alcohol and deesterified with ammonia. Amidated pectins behave like low-ester pectins but need less calcium and are more tolerant of excess calcium. Also, gels from amidated pectin are thermo-reversible - they can be heated and after cooling solidify again, whereas conventional pectin-gels will afterwards remain liquid.
Degree of Esterification influences gelling properties. Very high esterified pectins jellifie
quicker i.e. at higher temperatures than less high esterified pectins. They will
also form more elastic and brittle gel textures. Pectin stabilises mixed fruit yoghurt as well in layered products where they avoid the fruit part to get mixed with the yoghurt. In acidified milk drinks high ester pectins protect the protein at a low pH range during the pasteurization process
Commercial instant pectins are made in a granulation process creating a porous structure, speeding the dispersion of the pectin in water.
It is a watery solution of pectin used as gelling agent in industry and home use.
Other raw materials for pectin production
Pectin extraction in the presence of alcohols 
Kirtchev and colleagues discussed the extraction process. They found that addition of low molecular alcohols in concentrations from 1% to 3% to the acid extraction resulted in an acceleration of extraction and increase in the pectin yield by 55–90%. Ethylene glycol, glycerol and diethylene glycol had a better effect than monohydric alcohols.
The authors concluded that the addition of alcohols resulted in a measurable increase in the pectin gel strength. Extraction time was found to be 25 minutes
Microwave pretreatment 
Kratchanova and colleagues found that the pretreatment of fruit raw material such as orange with microwave pretreatment led to destruction of the parenchymal cell and inactivation of endogenous enzymes of the peels. Increased pectin yields from 190% to 250% and improvement of the quality of pectin were found.
Pectin from chicory 
Robert and colleagues report that the maximum pectin yields of 4.65 and 4.62 per cent were obtained from the Melci and Nausica varieties, respectively, using an acidic treatment at 85 degrees Celsius.
The galacturonic acid content of pectins was reported to range from 43 to 53 per cent, with no significant differences observed during development or varieties.
Extraction and characterization of pectins from cocoa husks 
Mollea and colleagues investigated cocoa husks, a by-product of cocoa processing, as a source of pectins. Best yields were found by the authors with minced husks after 1 h of extraction at pH 2.5. methyl and acetyl ester contents were determined by the researchers.
Extraction and rheological properties of pectin from fresh peach pomace 
Pagán and Ibarz reported that highest yields of pectin from fresh peach pomace were obtained at 80°C at pH 1,20 a study of the extraction of pectin from fresh peach pomace. Rheologic properties of the obtained pectin were analysed by the authors.
Comparisons between different techniques for water-based extraction of pectin from orange peels 
Yeoh and colleagues found that the greatest total amount of pectin yield using microwave extraction of orange peel was 5.27% on a dry basis for 15 min of extraction at pH l,5. According to the authors, the greatest amount of material per unit time was obtained after 5 min, which was the same amount as that extracted using Soxhlet extraction for 3 h. Extraction for 5 minutes, pH 1,54 and solvent systems containing ethanol and EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid), doubled the amount of pectin extracted as compared with distilled water extraction.
Water-based extraction of pectin from flavedo and albedo of orange peels 
Liu, Shi and Langrish found that the amount of pectin extracted reduces as the pH increased, and microwave extraction showed a much higher extraction rate by a factor of 120, compared with Soxlet extraction. The authors found that pectin existed mainly in the albedo, but the flavedo still contained 27% of the amount of pectin in the total extract, and 2.2% in the dried. The combination of hand-pressure and microwave on pectin yield from flavedo was 12% better were found by the authors as resulting in highest yield.
Pectins from ambarella peels 
Extraction and use of pectins from ambarella peels were assessed by Koubala and colleagues. The authors found that extraction with oxalic acid/ammonium oxalate solution gave the highest pectin yield, with high molar mass and degree of methylation.
Sugar beet pulp pectin extracts 
Extraction of pectins from sugar beet pulp in an aqueous acid medium under different conditions of pH, temperature and time were analysed by Yapo and colleagues. They found that most of the extracted pectins were surface-active, and some of them were quite able to produce and stabilize with effectiveness oil-in-water emulsions. Yield, physico-chemical characteristics and surface properties of acid extracted pectins from sugar beet pulp were found to be influenced by the extraction conditions.
Pectin from butterecup squash fruit 
O’Donoghue and SomerfieldI examined the gelation properties of pectins isolated from buttercup squash (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moshata), flesh tissue. The authors found that extraction with HNO3 formed only weak gels, citric acid-extracted pectin were already forming solid structure at 90°C, similar to a commercial rapid-set pectin, while a sol-gel transition began for the HCl-extracted samples at <70°C, similar to a commercial slow-set pectin. Longer extraction and removal of starch by enzyme digestion affected isolated pectin chain length and esterification.
Pectic substances of Mango 
Kratchanova and colleagues studied the pectin composition of peels and fruit pulp of two Guinean mango varieties. The polyuronide content of the dried fruit material varied from 14·6 to 21·3% depending on the type of raw material (variety and part of the fruit) and methods of treatment prior to drying. By hydrochloric acid extraction at 85°C and pH = 1·5, the pectic substances were extracted most fully from the dried mango peels.
The following composition were found by the authors: galacturonic acid (40–70%); arabinose (2-4%); rhamnose (1-2%); xylose (1-7%); mannose (1-3%); galactose (14-22%) and glucose (8-22%).
Effect of extraction conditions on some physicochemical characteristics of pectins from mango peels 
Koubala and colleagues studied the extraction and composition of pectns from mango peels. The authors found that physicochemical behaviour of pectins could be influenced by the extraction .The ammonium oxalate-extracted mango pectins presented a good recovery yield, a high average molar mass and intrinsic viscosity and a high degree of methylation, and is indicated for industrially uses. or their gelling properties.
Pectins from banana peels 
Emaga and colleagues studied the pectin extraction of pectin from banana peels. The authors found that lower pH values negatively affected the galacturonic acid content of pectin, but increased the pectin yield. The values of degree of methylation decreased significantly with increasing temperature and time of extraction.
Pumpkin pectin extraction with enzymes 
Ptichkina and colleagues presented an optimised procedure for extraction of pectin from pumpkin pulp, using an enzyme preparation from Aspergillus awamori. In contrast to pumpkin pectin extraction with Bacillus polymyxa, the pectin prepared with Aspergillus awamori forms gels with 60 wt% sucrose at pH 3, although the yield is somewhat lower (14% in comparison with 22%). Some possible medicinal and food uses are suggested.
Pectin extraction from peach pomace 
Faravash and Ashtiani analysed the effects of acid volume, acid-washing time and pH variation during different stages of pectic substances extraction process on the yield of pectic substances isolation from dried mixed varieties of peach pomace is investigated. Ethanol-to-extract ratio (ER) as a new parameter and extract evaporation are defined to investigate their influence on the yield of pectic substances extraction. The effect of ethanol-to-extract ratio on the degree of esterification of pectic substances was determined by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method.
Cholesterol removal in liquid egg yolk using high methoxyl pectins 
Garcia and colleagues developed a process to reduce cholesterol in liquid in egg yolk in watery solution using high methoxyl pectins The most important variables influencing the process were dilution level of egg yolk, ionic strength, and pH of yolk suspension, as well as the amount of pectin gel used in the extraction. The egg yolk contends of cholesterol and protein decreased to 14.4% and 88.6%, respectively.
 Wikipedia: Pectin
Kirtchev, N.; Panchev, I.; Kratchanov, Chr.: Pectin extraction in the presence of alcohols. Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 11, Issue 4, 1989, Pages 257-263 sciencedirect
 Kratchanova, M.; Pavlova, E.; I. Panchev, I.: The effect of microwave heating of fresh orange peels on the fruit tissue and quality of extracted pectin. Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 56, Issue 2, 4 June 2004, Pages 181-185. Doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2004.01.009 sciencedirect
 Robert, C.; Emaga, T.H; . Wathelet, B.; Paquot, M.: Effect of variety and harvest date on Pectin extracted from chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.). Food Chemistry (Elsevier) Published on-line ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.013
 Mollea, C. ; Chiampo, F. ; Conti, R.: Extraction and characterization of pectins from cocoa husks: A preliminary studyFood Chemistry, Volume 107, Issue 3, 1 April 2008, Pages 1353-1356. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.006 sciencedirect
 Pagán,J.; Ibarz, A.: Extraction and rheological properties of pectin from fresh peach pomace
Journal of Food Engineering, Volume 39, Issue 2, February 1999, Pages 193-201 sciencedirect
 Yeoh, S.; Shi, J.; Langrish, T.A.G.: Comparisons between different techniques for water-based extraction of pectin from orange peels
Desalination, Volume 218, Issues 1-3, 5 January 2008, Pages 229-237
 Liu, Y.; Shi, J.; Langrish, T.A.G.: Water-based extraction of pectin from flavedo and albedo of orange peels. Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 120, Issue 3, 15 July 2006, Pages 203-209 sciencedirect
 Koubala, B.B.; Mbome, L.I.; Kansci, G.; Tchouanguep Mbiapo F.; Crepeau, M-J.; Thibault, J,_F.; Ralet, M.C.: Physicochemical properties of pectins from ambarella peels (Spondias cytherea) obtained using different extraction conditions. Food Chemistry, Volume 106, Issue 3, 1 February 2008, Pages 1202-1207 sciencedirect
 Yapo, B.M.; Robert, C.; Etienne, I.; Wathelet, B. Paquot, M.: Effect of extraction conditions on the yield, purity and surface properties of sugar beet pulp pectin extracts
Food Chemistry, Volume 100, Issue 4,2007, Pages 1356-1364 sciencedirect
 O’Donoghue, E.M. Somerfield, S.D.: Biochemical and rheological properties of gelling pectic isolates from buttercup squash fruit Food Hydrocolloids. Available online 27 July 2007 sciencedirect
 Kratchanova, M.; Bénémou, Cécé.; Kratchanov, Chr: On the pectic substances of mango fruits. Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 15, Issue 3, 1991, Pages 271-282 sciencedirect
 Koubala, B.B.; Kansci, G.; Mbome, L.I.; Crépeau, M.-J.; Thibault J.-F. ; RaletM.-C.:: Effect of extraction conditions on some physicochemical characteristics of pectins from “Améliorée” and “Mango” mango peels. Food Hydrocolloids, Available online 31 July 2007 sciencedirect
 Emaga, Thomas Happi; Ronkart, Sébastien N.; Robert, Christelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel: Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design. Food Chemistry, Available online 6 November 2007 sciencedirect
 Ptichkina, N.M.; Markina, O.A.; Rumyantseva, G.N. : Pectin extraction from pumpkin with the aid of microbial enzymes. Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 22, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages 192-195 sciencedirect
 Faravash, Ram Sanati; Ashtiani, Farzin Zokaee: The influence of acid volume, ethanol-to-extract ratio and acid-washing time on the yield of pectic substances extraction from peach pomace. Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 22, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages 196-202 sciencedirect
Luis A.; Freitas, Jackson F.: Cholesterol removal in liquid egg yolk using high methoxyl pectins. Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 69, Issue 1, 1 May 2007, Pages 72-78 sciencedirect
20.12.2007: CSPI calls for more FDA funding and a modern law
CSPI highlights several hot topics in food safety in their year´s report:
The CSPI says that U.S. food safety laws are antiquated and were never designed to deal with modern issues such as escalating imports, bioterrorism, or tainted produce, The recent outbreaks serve as a reminder that more funding and a modern law are needed to protect the food supply.
 CSPI: Produce and Poultry Top Causes of “Illnesses Linked to Outbreaks”. December 20, 2007
20.12.2007 Nanotechnology is not welcome in foods 
According to the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), the majority of consumers view the development of nanotechnology favourably. However, many are against the use of nanoparticles in food.
The majority are against the use of nanotechnology in food: 69 percent of the respondents reject the use of nanoadditives in spices to prevent them from becoming lumpy. 84 percent do not want any foods whose appearance has been rendered more appealing for longer through the use of nanoparticles.
 Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR): The majority of consumers view the development of nanotechnology favourably. 19.12.2007.
13.12.2007: Disagreement between epidemiological/ observational studies and randomised clinical trials 
In statistics the goal of an observational study is to draw inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator. This is in contrast with controlled experiments, such as randomized controlled trials, where each subject is randomly assigned to a treated group or a control group before the start of the treatment.
A major challenge in conducting observational studies is to draw inferences that are acceptably free from influences by overt biases, as well as to assess the influence of potential hidden biases.
A bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense, usually in the sense for having a preference to one particular point of view or ideological perspective. However, one is generally only said to be biased if one's powers of judgement are influenced by the biases one holds, to the extent that one's views could not be taken as being neutral or objective, but instead as subjective.
Observational studies serve a wide range of purposes, on a continuum from the discovery of new findings to the confirmation or refutation of previous finding. Some studies are essentially exploratory and raise interesting hypotheses. Others pursue clearly defined hypotheses in available data. In yet another type of studies, the collection of new data is planned carefully on the basis of an existing hypothesis. 
STROBE: In 2007, several prominent medical researchers issued the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, in which they called for observational studies to conform to 22 criteria that would make their conclusions easier to understand and generalise.  Download STROBE
Randomized controlled trial (RCT)
A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of scientific experiment most commonly used in testing healthcare services. 'RCTs are considered the most reliable form of scientific evidence in healthcare because they eliminate spurious causality and bias'. RCTs are mainly used in clinical studies, but are also employed in other sectors such as judicial, educational, and social research. involve the random allocation of different interventions (or treatments) to subjects. This ensures that known and unknown confounding factors are evenly distributed between treatment groups.
Traditionally the control in randomized controlled trials refers to studying a group of treated patients not in isolation but in comparison to other groups of patients, the control groups, who by not receiving the treatment under study give investigators important clues to the effectiveness of the treatment, its side effects, and the parameters that modify these effects.
In an open trial, the researcher knows the full details of the treatment, and so does the patient. These trials are open to challenge for bias, and they do nothing to reduce the placebo effect. However, sometimes they are unavoidable, particularly in relation to surgical techniques, where it may not be possible or ethical to hide from the patient which treatment he or she received. Usually this kind of study design is used in bioequivalence studies.
In a single-blind trial, the researcher knows the details of the treatment but the patient does not. Because the patient does not know which treatment is being administered (the new treatment or another treatment) there might be no placebo effect.
In a double bling trial, one researcher allocates a series of numbers to 'new treatment' or 'old treatment'. The second researcher is told the numbers, but not what they have been allocated to. Since the second researcher does not know, they cannot possibly tell the patient, directly or otherwise, and cannot give in to patient pressure to give them the new treatment. Therefore double-blind (or randomized) trials are preferred, as they tend to give the most accurate results.
The most common meaning is that the subject, researcher and person administering the treatment are blinded to what is being given. Alternately, it may mean that the patient, researcher and statician are blinded.
A major difficulty in dealing with trial results comes from commercial, political and/or academic pressure. Most trials are expensive to run, and will be the result of significant previous research, which is itself not cheap. There may be a political issue at stake (compare or vested interests . In such cases there is great pressure to interpret results in a way which suits the viewer, and great care must be taken by researchers to maintain emphasis on clinical facts.
The Tatsioni analysis on disagreements between epidemiological/ observational studies and
randomised clinical trials 
Athina Tatsioni and colleagues evaluated the citations for two highly cited observational studies for cardiovascular benefits associated with vitamin E supplementation and publications related to the protective effects of beta-carotene on cancer and estrogen on Alzheimer’s disease They looked for an explanation how these benefits continue to be defended in literature, despite contradicting evidence from large RCTs.
In this trial despite the eventual accumulation of strongly refuting evidence, even in 2005, half of the articles citing these epidemiological studies were still favourable to the vitamin E claim.
The same situation was observed for beta-carotene, said the authors. "In 2006 more than half of the articles citing the highly cited epidemiologic articles on beta-carotene for cancer prevention remained favourable for these interventions.
The authors concluded that Claims from highly cited observational studies persist and continue to be supported in the medical literature despite strong contradictory evidence from randomized trials. According to the authors differential interpretation, inappropriate entrenchment of old information, lack of dissemination of newer data, or purposeful silencing of their existence is to be blamed for this situation
Controversity of results between observational and randomized clinical trials 
According to Andrew Shao, Ph.D., vice president, scientific and regulatory affairs, Council for Responsible Nutrition research may seem to contradict itself, however, that should not be interpreted to mean one type of study trumps another, particularly when different studies ask and answer different questions. Seemingly conflicting data can exist side by side, when one understands that not all studies are asking the same questions in the same populations.
Dr. Shao says “this suggests that researchers interpret research differently, depending on their bias and expertise. For pure scientific purposes, here’s a valid hypothesis to test: conduct a trial on secondary prevention in heart patients with a lifetime of bad habits that likely contributed to their heart disease to determine if a nutrient might provide some benefit. But it’s not valid to conclude from the results of that study that the nutrient doesn’t work. We can’t expect a simple vitamin supplement to reverse heart disease. So if that doesn’t happen, we must interpret the results appropriately by placing the study in the proper context and acknowledge that the results don’t answer the question of whether supplemental amounts of vitamin E in a healthy population could have prevented heart disease had it been used consistently over time in combination with other antioxidants.”
Dr. Shao states, “The Randomized Clinical Trials RCTs with negative results attempted to answer the question, ‘can a supplemental nutrient treat or reverse a disease or a lifetime of unhealthy habits in patients who are also taking prescription medications?’.
The observational studies with positive results attempted to answer the question, ‘if we start with a mostly healthy population generally free of disease, can we identify various diet/nutrient and lifestyle factors that make them more or less prone to disease?’
These are very different questions, making the studies incompatible for direct comparison and demonstrating that one type of study can’t necessarily be used to refute the other. We firmly believe that RCTs should not be thought of as the only rigorous research approach. As the study authors point out, ‘when randomized and observational studies disagree, it is incorrect to assume that nonrandomized studies are always wrong.’ Rather, we should put studies into the appropriate context and evaluate the total body of evidence, which includes RCTs and observational studies, and other types of research.
 Wikipedia: Observational study
 von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G.; Egger, Matthias; Pocock,; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Vandenbroucke, Jan P.: The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting Observational Studies. PLoS Med. 4 (10): e296. Doi:10137/journal.pmed.0040296. PMID 17941714.
Tatsioni, Athina; Bonitsis, Nikolaos G.; Ioannidis, John P. A.: Persistence of Contradicted Claims in the Literature. JAMA. 5. December 2007;298(21):2517-2526.
 Council for Responsible Nutrition: New JAMA Study Raises Issue of How Nutrients Should be Researched. Press Room Washington D.C., December 4, 2007
12.12.2007: Fortification of dairy products with magnesium 
According to Maud Cansell and colleagues about 20 per cent of the French population present a magnesium deficiency. Undersupply of this mineral has been linked to high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, muscular weakness, and diarrhoea.
The authors studied the supplementation of magnesium in foods like dairy products. Magnesium can induce in these foods chemical degradations, protein aggregation and generate an unpleasant taste. To avoid this the researchers created a blend of rapeseed oil, olive oil, olein, and/or miglyol.
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate and sodium caseinate which traps the magnesium in the interior of a Water/Oil/Water emulsion. The unwanted reactions are avoided, and magnesium is released from the W/O/W emulsion by hydrolysis of the oil in the intestine. The emulsion is stable during pasteurisation.
 Bonnet, M.; Cansell, M.; Berkaoui, A.; Ropers, ; Anton, M. Leal-Calderon, F. : Release rate profiles of magnesium from multiple W/O/W emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids (Elsevier) Published on-line ahead of print 5 December 2007, doi:10.1016/j.foodhyd.2007.11.016
11.12.2007: Flavonoids, such as isoflavones, anthocyanidins and flavonols
Phytoestrogens are substances which are estrogen-like. They are sometimes called endocrine disrupters. Some hypothesis say that exogenous substances with estrogenic or other hormonally
active properties may adversely affect human health. 
Endocrine disruptors can be industrial contaminants, such as pesticides and plasticizers, and others are natural phytoestrogens found in plants such as soy and in herbal supplements.
They may cause male wild-life animals in water contaminated by detergent, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and herbicide to express female characteristics and other modifications . Human development can also be feminized by exposure to estrogenic chemicals, affect breast growth and lactation, and could have a role in uterine diseases such as fibroids and endometriosis.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals mostly exhibit estrogenic effects, but a few are anti-estrogenic or anti-androgenic, resulting in reduced fertility in breeding cattle. 
They are found in plants. Important phytoestrogens are ligans, isoflavones and coumetans.
Lignans: They are found in flax seed (300 mg/100g), sesame seed (290 mg/100g), brassica vegetables (0,2 - 2 mg/100 g), red wine (0,09 mg/100 g). When part of the human diet, some lignans are metabolized to form mammalian lignans known as enterediol and enterolactone by intestinal bacteria. Lignans that can be metabolised to form mammalian lignans are pinoresinol, lariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, hydroxymatairesinol, syringaresinol and sesamin. 
Isoflavones: Isoflavones are polyphenolic compounds produced almost exclusively by the members of the Fabaceae/ Leguminosae (bean) family. Important isoflavones are genistein, daidzein, glycitein and formononetin. Soy products contain the highest amounts of isoflavone, followed by legumes, meat products and other processed foods, cereals and breads, nuts and oilseeds, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, fruits, and non alcoholic beverages. 
Coumetans: A known coumestan is the coumestrol. Coumestans are estrogen-like substances (phytoestrogens) made by some plants. Coumestans may have anticancer effects according to the U.S. National Cancer Institute.
A new coumestan, tephcalostan has been isolated from the whole plant of Tephrosia calophylla BEDD. together with two known flavonoids. 
Flavonoids, lignans and reduction of risk of breath cancer 
Bryan Fink and colleagues investigated the association of dietary flavonoid intake with reduced risk of breast cancer in a population-based sample of US women. The authors found a decrease in breast cancer risk associated with flavonoid intake, most pronounced for flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and lignans in postmenopausal women.
The authors conclude that women consuming sufficient levels of flavonoids may benefit from their potential chemopreventive effects. Flavonoids antioxidants may thus reduce mortality among postmenopausal in breast cancer patients.
Brian Fink from the University of North Carolina states, write in another publication, that his team found that the breath-cancer mortality in postmenopausal women may be reduced in association with high levels of dietary flavones and isoflavones. No reduction of risk was found in premenopausal women.
Flavonoids and flavanones reduce oral and paryngeal cancer 
The intake of flavonoids has been inversely related to the risk of various common neoplasms, but scanty data exist on oral and pharyngeal cancer. We have applied data on food and beverage content of six major classes of flavonoids. for flavanones, for flavonols, and for total flavonoids. No significant association emerged for isoflavones, anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and flavones. The inverse relations with total flavonoids and flavanones was significant, whereas that with flavonols were nonsignificant. None of the associations were significant after further allowance for vitamin C, probably on account of the high collinearity between these compounds.
 Juberg, Daland R.: An Evaluation of Endocrine Modulators: Implications for Human Health. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 45, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 93-105. Doi:10.1006/eesa.1999.1851.
 McLachlan, John A.; Weatherhead, Erica Simpson; Melvenia Martin: Endocrine disrupters and female reproductive health. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Volume 20, issue1, March 2006, Pages 63-75. Doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2005.09.003
 Thompson LU, Boucher BA, Liu Z, Cotterchio M, Kreiger N. Phytoestrogen content of foods consumed in Canada, including isoflavones, lignans, and coumestan. Nutr Cancer 2006; [cited 2007 1 Mar];54(2):184-201.
 Horn-Ross, P.L.; Barnes, S.; Lee, M.; Coward, L.; Mandel, J.E.; Koo J.; John, E.M.; Smith, M.: Assessing phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies: development of a database (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000 Apr;11(4):289-98.
 Pennaka Hari Kishore, Mopuru Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, Duvvuru Gunasekar, Madugula Marthanda Murthy, Cristelle Caux and Bernard Bodo, “A New Coumestan from Tephrosia calophylla”, Chem. Pharm. Bull., Vol. 51, 194-196 (2003). doi:10.1248/cpb.51.194
 Fink, Brian N.; Steck, Susan E.; Wolff, Mary S.; Britton, Julie A.; Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Schroeder, Jane C.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Gammon, Marilie D. : Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Breast Cancer Risk among Women on Long Island. Am. J. Epidemiol. March 2007 165: 514-523; doi:10.1093/aje/kwk033
 Fink, B.N.; Steck, S.E.; Wolff, M.S.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Gaudet, M.M.; Abrahamson, P.E.; Bell, P.; Schroeder, J.C.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Neugut, A.I.; Gammon: M.D. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Breast Cancer Survival among Women on Long Island. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. November 2007, Volume 16, Number 11, Pages 2285-2292.
 Rossi,M.; Garavello, W.; Talamini, R.; Negri, E.; Bosetti, C.; Dal Maso, L.; Lagiou, P.; Tavani, A.; Polesel, J.; Barzan, L.:Flavonoids and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer: A Case-Control Study from Italy. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., August 1, 2007; 16(8): 1621 - 1625. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0168
09.12.2007: Germany wants to phase out di-isobutylphthalate (BiBP) in food-contact paper and board 
According to the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) concentrations of up to 5 milligram per kilogram of the chemical di-isobutylphthalate (DiBP) have been found in food such as fat-containing, powder and fine grain foods like rice, baking mixtures or breadcrumbs packaged in cartons.
In animal experiments DiBP is reprotoxic and embryotoxic. It is used as a plasticiser in dispersion glues for paper and packaging and when they are recycled DiBP can be found in paper and board packaging. The BfR and the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) advocates a voluntary undertaking by the manufacturers and processors of paper and board to no longer use DiBP-containing glues or printing inks to reduce the DiBP content in recycled paper.
The data from long-term toxicity studies are not available therefore BfR recommends a specific restriction on the migration of DiBP to foods, a so-called specific migration guidance value, of 1 milligram DiBP per kilogram food. For baby and infant formula this value should be 0.5 milligram. This was based on the Health assessment made by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) which has a similar structure and effect.
It is being proposed to classify DiBP as reprotoxic substance and to be included it in Annex I of the Dangerous Substances Directive 67/548/EEC).
 Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR): Di-isobutylphthalate in food-contact paper and board
 Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances
09.12.2007: Natural extracts from olive and grape may be used for their antioxidant effect and antimicrobial activity. 
Serra and colleagues responding to a growing resistance to synthetic preservatives such as BHA and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and oleuropein as antioxidant analysed the extracts of waste from olive oil and wine production. They found that the extracts inhibited microbes like E.coli, S.poona, B.cereus, S. cerevisiae and C.albicans more efficiently than standard antioxidants such as quercetin,
hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein. The active compound of the extracts were phenolic compounds, such as 3400 milligram of gallic acid equivalents per litre (GAE/L), compared to 400mgGAE/L in the olive extract. Gram negative bacteria were more resistant to olive phenolics than Gram positive strains.
The authors concluded that the natural grape extract and olive extract may be used as natural preservative for foods.
 Serra,A.T.; Matias, A.A.; Nunes, A.V.M.; Leitao, M.C.; Brito, D.; Bronze, R.; Silva, S.; Pires, A. Crespo, M.T.; San Romao, M.V.; Duarte, C.M.: In vitro evaluation of olive- and grape-based natural extracts as potential preservatives for food.Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies (Elsevier) Published on-line ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.ifset.2007.07.011 sciencedirect
09.12.2007: Innovative extraction of anthocyanins methods
According to Corrales and colleagues the anthocyanins from low cost grape by-products may be extracted using new technologies such as heat treatment at 70°C together with 600MPa high hydrostatic pressure, 3 kV-cm pulsed electric fields and 35 Khz ultrasonics, reduces solvent and shortening extraction time. The authors compared these methods with control extractions and found up to four-fold higher antioxidant activity of the extracts. Anthocyanin monoglucosides were better extracted by pulsed electric field, whereas the acylated ones were extracted by high hydrostatic pressure. 
 Corrales, M.; Toepfl,S.; Butz, P.; Knorr, D.; Tauscher, B.: Extraction of anthocyanins from grape by-products assisted by ultrasonics, high hydrostatic pressure or pulsed electric fields: A comparison. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2008 Pages 85-91 doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2007.06.002
09.12.2007: Understanding cleaning of food process plants 
Liu and colleagues assessed the removal of food fouling deposits during the cleaning of process plants.
According to the authors deposits form by adhesion to the surface and cohesion between elements of the deposit. Cleaning can result from either or both adhesive and cohesive failure.
The authors measured the adhesive/cohesive strength of deposits in terms of the work required to remove them from the surface, using a range of coated surfaces. They found that tomato paste, bread dough and egg albumin deposits have a lower adhesive than cohesive strength, whilst others (whey protein) have a lower cohesive than adhesive strength.
The researchers present a simple model to analyse the results in terms of the work required to remove the deposit per unit surface area and volume.
 Liu,W.; Fryer, P.J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.: Identification of cohesive and adhesive effects in the cleaning of food fouling deposits. Inovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2006, Pages 263-269. Doi:101016/j.ifset.2006.02.006 science direct
08.12.2007: Almond supplementation benefits smokers 
According to Ning and colleagues smoking increases the risk of several chronic diseases associated with elevated oxidative stress status. The researchers assessed almonds as a source of antioxidant nutrients and the reduction of oxidative stress biomarkers from smokers. In a clinical trial the diet of smokers were supplemented with 84 g almonds. Oxidative stress indicators were found decreased after the almond supplementation.
The authors concluded that almond intake can enhance antioxidant defences and diminish biomarkers of oxidative stress in smokers. However, after almond supplementation, the concentration of of urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an indicator of oxidative stress, remained significantly greater in smokers than in nonsmokers by 98% suggesting that the best protection against smoke related diseases is to stop smoking.
Ning Li, Xudong Jia, C.-Y. Oliver Chen, Jeffrey B. Blumberg, Yan Song, Wenzhong Zhang, Xiaopeng Zhang, Guansheng Ma, and Junshi Chen: Almond Consumption Reduces Oxidative DNA Damage and Lipid Peroxidation in Male Smokers. J. Nutr. 2007 137: 2717-2722.
08.12.2007: Algae may combat iron deficiency and anemia in underdeveloped countries 
García-Casal and colleagues studied iron, vitamin C, and phytic acid composition and also iron bioavailability the marine algae Ulva sp, Sargassum sp, Porphyra sp, and Gracilariopsis sp integrated in rice meals. The researchers found 157 mg iron/100 g in Sargassum and 196 mg iron/100 g in Gracilariopsis. and ascorbic acid concentration were found to be 38 µg/g dry weight in Ulva and 362 µg/g dry weight in Sargassum. Phytates were not detected in the algae.
The authors concluded that algae are good sources of ascorbic acid and bioavailable iron, and stressed that promoting algae consumption could help to improve iron nutrition in underdeveloped countries to combat iron deficiency and anemia.
 García-Casal, Maria N.; Pereira,Ana C. ;Leets, Irene; Ramírez, José; Quiroga, Maria F.: Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions High Iron Content and Bioavailability in Humans from Four Species of Marine Algae J. Nutr. 2007 137: 2691-2695.
08.12.2007: Leukemia in children living near nuclear power plants 
The German Federal Agency for Radiation Protection says that there is an increased leukemia risk for children living in the proximity of 5 kilometres from a nuclear power station. The risk increases inversely to the distance to the plant. A research study leaded by Dr. Maria Blettner , analysed all leukemia cases in the proximity of 16 German nuclear power plants from 1980 to 2003. The researchers found 37 new cases while only 17 had been statistically expected. One member of the team said that the results were underrated. He says the area of concern is to increase to 50 kilometres around nuclear power plants.
The study says that the emission of radiation of the nuclear power plants is not sufficient to cause to increase the risk of cancer, also other concurrent causes could not explain the association of increased leukemia risk with inverse distance to the nuclear power plant.
Worldwide studies confirm increased risk of leukemia in children under 5 years. The study of Dr. Blettner was done at The Institute of Medical Statistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI) at the Clinical Centre of Mainz University.
The study rises high doubts on the veracity of foregoing studies which deny any increased cancer risk related to nuclear power plants.
The Federal Minister for the Environment Sigmar Gabriel asked the Radiation Protection Commission to assess the study, which is part of the German Children Cancer Register.
 Pressemitteilung 011 vom 08.12.2007 Krebsrisiko für Kinder in der nahen Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken: - Neue Studie im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Strahlenschutz bringt erstmals belastbare Ergebnisse
08.12.2007:Folate reduces incidence of depression in man but not in women
According to Simon Gilbody and colleagues low folate has been linked to depression, but research is contradictory. In a meta-analysis the researchers found significant relationship between folate status and depression. Folate levels were also lower in depression.
The authors concluded that there is accumulating evidence that low folate status is associated with depression. 
Kentaro Murakami and colleagues in a study in Japan found that higher dietary intake of folate was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese men but not women. In this study no significant association with depression was observed for the intake of riboflavin, pyridoxine, cobalamin, total omega 3 PUFAs, alfa linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid in man and woman.
The authors call for more research on this topic. They stress that there are hypotheses that omega-3 PUFA may have an important role in neurotransmitter synthesis, degradation, release, reuptake, and binding, resulting in a pattern of neurotransmitter activity that has been associated with depression 
 Simon Gilbody, Tracy Lightfoot, and Trevor Sheldon
J Epidemiol Community Health 2007; 61: 631-637. doi:10.1136/jech.2006.050385
 Murakami, Kentaro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sasaki,Satoshi; Ohta, Masanori; Sato, Masao; Matsushita, Yumi; Mishima Norio: Dietary intake of folate, other B vitamins, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive symptoms in Japanese adults. Published on-line ahead of print 3 December 2007,Nutrition (Elsevier) doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2007.10.013
07.12.2007: Consumption Blueberries, mixed grapes and kiwi fruit during meals increase antioxidant activity 
Prior and colleagues 2007 found that the consumption of berries and fruits such as blueberries, mixed grape and kiwifruit, increased plasma Anti Oxidant Capacity (AOC) measured as Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity in the postprandial state. High caloric meals rich in carbohydrates, protein and fat containing no antioxidants was associated with a decline in plasma AOC. Antioxidants are cleared from blood in 2 -4 hours after intake. Consumption of antioxidants such as berries and fruits during each meal is therefore recommended in order to prevent periods of postprandial oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress has been linked to an increased risk of various diseases including cancer, Alzheimer's, and cardiovascular disease.
In this study dried plums and plum juice had no antioxidant activity. Consumption of blueberries during meals increased hydrophilic AOC and the lipophilic AOC.
Mixed grape consumption with the meal was associated with a increase in hydrophilic AOC, but not lipophilic AOC. Cherries, eaten with the meal increased the lipophilic, but not the hydrophilic, AOC.
The authors call for more studies on this matter.
 Prior, R.L; Gu, L.; Wu, X.; Jacob, R.A.; Sotoudeh, G.; Kader, A.A.; Cook , R.A.: Plasma Antioxidant Capacity Changes Following a Meal as a Measure of the Ability of a Food to Alter In Vivo Antioxidant Status. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Volume 26, Number 2, Pages 170-181
06.12.2007: Salt reduction could save lives 
According to Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH) the average daily salt consumption in the western world, is between 10 and 12g, in UK 9g, while the WHO/FAO recommends a maximum intake of 5 g this means 2g sodium per day. The UK Food Standards Agency, however, recommend 6 g salt per day as a realistic target. 
High salt intake is responsible for increasing blood pressure (Hipertension), a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) - a disease that causes almost 50 per cent of deaths in Europe.
Asaria and colleagues wrote in a review that simple dietary changes could reduce salt intake by 30 per cent.
Together with key elements of WHO's tobacco control framework, 13.8 million death related to chronic disease s could be avoided. where cardiovascular disease account for 75.8 per cent, respiratory disease 15.4 per cent, and cancers 8.7 per cent.
As strategy to reduce salt consumption, the authors recommend awareness campaigns through mass-media outlets and regulation of food products by public-health officers. 
According to CASH, global food industry has to remove slowly the salt added to manufactured foods. The target is to reduce salt intake worldwide to less than five g/day.
Highlight are the salt reduction in bread, breakfast cereals, potato crisps, meat and meat products and biscuit crackers.
FSA found three products to have the highest amount of salt per portion: 
- Sainsbury’s standard shepherd’s pie
5.9g of salt per portion - 98.3% of the recommended daily salt intake (6g)
- Marks and Spencer standard shepherd’s pie
4.8g of salt per portion - 80% of the recommended daily salt intake
- Tesco standard chicken korma and rice
4.6g of salt per portion - 76.7% of the recommended daily salt intake
 Asaria, P.; Chisholm, D.; Mathers, C.; Ezzati, M.; Beaglehole, R.; Chronic disease prevention: health effects and financial costs of strategies to reduce salt intake and control tobacco use. The Lancet Chronic Diseases Series. Published Online December 5, 2007, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61698-5
 Consensus Action on Salt and Health (Cash): Top sources of salt in the Uk diet.
Consensus Action on Salt and Health (Cash): Comment on The Lancet chronic diseases sereis 3
 FSA: QS: Which products had the highest salt content?
06.12.2007: Beta-carotene warning for smokers and former smokers
According to CSPI smokers and former smokers alike should absolutely not take supplements containing high-potency synthetic beta-carotene.
The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, a panel of the National Institutes of Health, and the United Kingdom’s Food Standards Agency have all separately determined that beta-carotene supplementation isn’t necessary for the general population and is especially risky for smokers and the asbestos-exposed. A major report on diet and cancer by the World Cancer Research Foundation and the American Institute for Cancer Research found that the evidence linking beta-carotene to cancer in smokers is “convincing.” 
CSPI says supplements with more than 5,000 IU, or 3 mg, should bear warning notices and that FDA should take enforcement action against companies that market the pills without the warnings. Nature’s Made, Nature’s Bounty, Source Naturals, Vitamin Shoppe, GNC, and others market pills with 25,000 IU, or 15 mg, of beta-carotene. Most multivitamins have 5,000 or less IU of beta-carotene but a few have more and should also bear a warning for smokers, says CSPI.
|Vitamins for Smokers:
There are special vitamin pills available for smokers, without beta-carotene. The product highlights a high need of antioxidants of smokers. Vitamin C , vitamin E, Selenium and bioflavonoids from citrus extracts are underlined to reduce oxidative stress.
However, the best way to protect against lung cancer is to stop smoking and to have a varied nutrition rich in fruits and vegetables.
| The Foundation introduced a simple front-of-pack stamp on food products that have passed an evaluation against a set of qualifying criteria based on international dietary guidelines based on the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. 
|Dietary factor|| Goal (% of total energy,
unless otherwise stated)
|Saturated fatty acids||<10%|
|Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)||6--10%|
|n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)||5--8%|
|n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)||1--2%|
|Trans fatty acids||<1%|
|Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)||By difference|
|Cholesterol||<300 mg per day|
|Sodium chloride (sodium)||<5 g per day (<2 g per day)|
|Fruits and vegetables||400 g per day|
|Total dietary fibre||From foods|
|Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)||From foods|
|Green (Low)||Amber (Medium)|| Red (High)
|Fat||≤ 3.0 g/100g||> 3.0 to ≤ 20.0 g/100g||> 20.0 g/100g | > 21.0g / portion|
|Saturates||≤ 1.5 g/100g||> 1.5 to ≤ 5.0 g/100g||> 5.0 g/100g | > 6.0g / portion|
|Sugar||≤ 5.0 g/100g||> 5.0 to ≤ 12.5g/100g||> 12.5g/100g | > 15.0g / portion|
|Salt||≤ 0.30 g/100g||> 0.30 to ≤ 1.50g/100g|| > 1.50 g/100g | > 2.40g /
|Green (Low)||Amber (Medium)|| Red (High)
|Fat||≤ 1.5 g/100ml||> 1.5 to ≤ 10.0 g/100ml||> 10.0g/100ml|
|Saturates||≤ 0.75 g/100ml||> 0.75 to ≤ 2.5 g/100ml||> 2.5g/100ml|
|Sugar||≤ 2.5 g/100ml||>2.5 to ≤ 6.3 g/100ml||> 6.3g/100ml|
|Salt||≤ 0.30 g/100ml||> 0.30 to ≤ 1.50g/100ml||> 1.50g/100ml|
|The Ocean Trader Label
Front of Pack Traffic Light Signpost Labelling
says that per serving informations should not be misleading and be based on realistic portion sizes.
Some companies label unrealistic serving sizes in order to achieve low nutritional values, such as the fish from Ocean Trader with a weight of 400 g the nutritional informations were calculated on portions of 150g.
What happens with the rest of the package after consuming two portions? My advice to Ocean Trade is to label realistic portions of 200 g and to use the FSA colour code for their front-of-pack nutritional signpost labelling.