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29.08.2010: Wild animals in Germany cannot be sold as food because of high levels of radioactive caesium-137 
The south of Germany was heavily affected by fall out of the Chernobil accident on April 26, 1986. German wild boar present high levels of contamination with caesium-137. According to the Environment Ministry, the average contamination for boar shot a forested region on the Bavarian border with the Czech Republic, was 7,000 becquerel per kilogram. According to food law any animals showing contamination levels higher than 600 becquerel per kilogram must be disposed of.
Germany's Atomic Energy Law, which regulates the use of nuclear energy in the country, mandates that the government in Berlin pay compensation to hunters who harvest contaminated animals.
Wild boar have a predilection for mushrooms and truffles, which are particularly high in radioactivity. Experts say that the contamination of mushrooms and truffles will remain high and may even rise slightly.
German government compensation payments to hunters are part of a 238 million euro recompense for damages relating to Chernobyl accident. Radioactivity in wild boar will likely remain that way for at least the next 50 years.
 A Quarter Century after Chernobyl. Radioactive Boar on the Rise in Germany Spiegel Online 30.07.2010
29.08.2010: High technology of Precision Farming in Germany 
High-tech farming machines plow, sow and harvest the crops, but also collects data for Precision Farming.
The composition of soil may fluctuates within one parcel of land from sandy loam to loamy sand to shell limestone, while soil density, nutrient content and water retention capacity can vary every few meters. Fertilizer sprayers had to be adjusted by hand to cope with the different needs of the soil.
New farming tractors are being equipped with a nitrogen sensor. The nutrient content of the plants are measured and the data is used to adjust the nitrogen fertilizer sprayer on back of the tractor. This saves costs and reduces the environmental impact. The German Agricultural Society estimates that 10 to 15 percent of farmers now apply various methods of Precision Farming.
Prof. Dr. Roland Gerhards of the University of Hohenheim says that fertilizer and pesticides had been applied on a large scale, ignoring the differences in the soil and crops. New sensors can now detect weeds and can even gauge the health and nutrient requirements of individual plants.
The system consists of a GPS receiver, a computer, a spectrometer, an infrared camera and fluorescence measuring devices to gathers data on the light reflection of the soil and vegetation. This determines the chlorophyll content of the plants based on fluorescent properties and scans weeds with a camera. Specific weeds are recognized by the scanner and specific pesticide is applied by the attached spraying cart.
According to Peter Leithold an artificial nose is being developed by Agri Con. This device can sniff out antibodies of plants with fungal infestation and automatically sprays fungicides onto the plants.
Agro science devices steer farming machineries with real-time systems
The importance of Precision Farming was recognized by the German tractor maker Claas Agrosystems which sells its high-tech products through a subsidiary, and US manufacturer Deere & Company. Claas launched in June a European innovation centre staffed with 90 scientists in Kaiserslautern, Germany.
Dieter Trautz, a plant expert at the Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences, is developing a soil sensor which measure the pH value and adds lime to acidic soil on real-time. This would eliminate the need to send soil samples to the laboratory.
A field robot is also being developed in Osnabrück that takes a regular inventory of crops in the field, determining whether plants have grown since the last inspection, and whether the leaves are green or perhaps wilted, indicating disease. The new farm equipment can take care of crops on a plant-by-plant basis to boost production and limit environmental impact.
An important technical development in conventional agriculture is precision farming. Precision farming is based on the combination of satellite-supported navigation systems GPS, geographical information systems (GIS), computerised control of agricultural machinery, and corresponding software for farm management. Precision farming is expected to result particularly in a reduction in inputs of production factors (fertiliser, pesticides/plant protection agents).
The German Federal Ministry for Education and Research initiated the 2002 joint project “Potential of modern agricultural technology and production methods”.
Precision farming aims to identifying places in a field where additional nutrient use will increase yield, and identify places where reduced input use will reduce costs while maintaining yield, reduces off-site transport of agricultural chemicals with surface runoff, subsurface drainage, and leaching. 
The basis of virtually all precision farming procedures is the systematic gathering and analysis of geographically referenced data. These data show the different growth conditions within an individual field, together with soil tests the reasons of different growth is determined and informations on application of nutrients are given. 
Precision farming uses systems which consider the variations which may occur during the growing season. Nitrogen Tester enables variations in crop nitrogen demand to be determined during the growing season without without delay of soil samples sent to a soil laboratory. 
Automatic differentiation between crop plants and weed 
Precision farming requires an automatic differentiation between crop plants and weeds.
Mishra and colleagues 2009 describe a system based on chlorophyll fluorescence imaging to identify the fluorescence parameters that can yield the highest contrast between the species. The performance of the Quadratic Discriminant Classifier in combination with Sequential Forward Floating Selection was found as the most efficient method for selecting the best performing subset of fluorescence images and found most efficient compared with the resolving power of conventional fluorescence parameters.
NIR analysing soil nutrients 
Song and Yong 2005 assessed near infrared analysis of nutrient content of soil to predict N, P, K and organic mater (OM) concentration. NIR spectra and constituents were related using partial least square regression (PLSR) technique. The predicted values of N obtained by the authors using near infrared spectrum NIRS were accurate, measuring soil samples. This, however, was not valid for P and K which gave poor results. The authors concluded that NIR may be useful for nitrogen testing for precision farming application.
Partial least square-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) for NIR soil analyses 
Wang, Shu and Zhang 2008 presented a combination of partial least square-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) and relative transformation method (RTM) for real-time analysing soil properties using Vis/NIR spectrum.
 Smart Tractors: Improving Crop Yields One Plant at a Time. Spiegel Online 27.08.2010.
 Wikipedia: Precision Agriculture.
 Agrocom: Precicion Farming: From the yield map to the input map
 Yara's Precision Farming Website: N-Tester, Principle of Measurement.
 Mishra A, Matous K, Mishra KB, Nedbal L: Towards discrimination of plant species by machine vision: advanced statistical analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence transients. J Fluoresc. 2009 Sep;19(5):905-13
 Song H, Yong He A: A New Approach to Detect Soil Nutrient Content Based on NIR Spectroscopy Technique. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;3:3149-52.
 Wang SQ, Shu N, Zhang HT: In-site total N content prediction of soil with Vis/NIR spectroscopy. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2008 Apr;28(4):808-12.
28.08.2010: Lysozyme to increase food safety 
Lysozymes are enzymes which can hydrolyse peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. These enzymes damage the bacterial cell walls. Lysozyme is abundant in a number of secretions, such as tears, saliva, human milk, and mucus. It is also present in cytoplasmic granules of the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Large amounts of lysozyme can be found in egg white, protecting developing chick from infections.
Dr.Saeed A. Khan and his colleagues 2010 found that the lysozyme in egg white was very effective in killing anthrax spores. Lysozyme also showed some activity in killing spores added to ground beef and milk.
According to the authors lysozumes could be used to increase food safety using this potential to eliminate anthrax producing bacteria in processed foods, such as ground beef, milk, fruit juices, and vegetables.
Three major distinct lysozyme types have been identified: the c-type (chicken or conventional type), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type) lysozyme. Lysozyme function as an antibacterial defence. Some lysozymes act as digestive enzymes.
Anthrax on ground beef 
Bacillus anthracis is an atypical food-borne pathogen with a high level of interest as a threat agent. This bacterium has been used in acts of terrorism by an American employee of a US military laboratory in 2001. Following this incidence, anthrax is being considered to be a potential agent of bioterrorism and biowarfare against civilian populations.
Tamplin and colleagues 2008 analysed the fate of Bacillus anthracis spores on ground beef. They found that spores on ground beef would not be expected to reproduce but to slowly die off under the typical lower storage temperatures (5 to 10°C) in commercial and home settings. Numerous spoilage bacteria found in ground beef increase the weak effect of storage temperature and cooking causes decisive reduction in anthrax spore and vegetative-cell.
 Toward safer foods for human consumption with anthrax protection. American Chemical Society. 26.08.2010
 Callewaert L, Michiels CW: Lysozymes in the animal kingdom. J Biosci. 2010 Mar;35(1):127-60. Review.
 Tamplin ML, Phillips R, Stewart TA, Luchansky JB, Kelley LC. Behavior of Bacillus anthracis strains Sterne and Ames K0610 in sterile raw ground beef. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Feb;74(4):1111-6.
28.08.2010: Black rice is a source of antioxidants 
Brown rice is the most widely produced rice variety worldwide. Rice millers remove only the outer husks from each rice grain to produce brown rice. If they process the rice further, removing the underlying nutrient rich bran, it becomes white rice. The bran of brown rice contains high levels of gamma-tocotrienol, one of the vitamin E compounds, and gamma-oryzanol antioxidants, which are lipid-soluble antioxidants.
Dr. Zhimin Xu and colleagues 2010 report that black rice bran from rice grown in the southern United States, has a higher level of anthocyanins antioxidants, then brown rice bran. The findings of the study suggest that black rice could improve nutrition of rice based diet. However, it is important to change nutritional habits and not remove the nutritious bran in rice mills.
Blacl rice has a deep black color and turns deep purple when cooked. Its dark purple color is primarily due to its high anthocyanin content. It has a relatively high mineral content (including iron) and, like most rice, supplies several important amino acids.
In China, noodles made from black rice have recently begun being produced. At least one United States bread company has also begun producing "Chinese Black Rice" bread. It shares the deep tyrian color of cooked black rice.
Black rice is a sticky rice that is grown in Indonesia and the Philippines. It is sold as an unmilled rice. The fibre rich black husks of the rice are not removed. Like other unmilled rice, black rice takes longer to cook than traditional husked rice. It should also ideally be stored under refrigeration and used within three months, to prevent spoilage. Rinsing and soaking the rice before cooking will help to bring the cooking time down. 
 Black rice rivals pricey blueberries as source of healthful antioxidants. American Chemical Society. 26.08.2010.
 Wikipedia: Black Rice
27.08.2010: Polyphenol antioxidants inhibit iron absorption 
Polyphenol are antioxidants substances found in many fruits and vegetables. They may prevent or delay certain types of cancer, enhancing bone metabolism and improving bone mineral density, and decreasing risk of heart disease. Okhee Hanand colleagues 2010 found that these antioxidants, however, may decreased the amount of iron the body absorbs, and may cause iron deficiency.
Polyphenoles of grape seed extract and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) found in green tea, bind to iron in the intestinal cells, forming a non-transportable complex and is excreted in the faeces when cells are sloughed off and replaced. Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency in the world, especially in developing countries where little meats is being consumed.
Bioactive dietary polyphenols inhibit heme iron absorption mainly by reducing iron exit rather than decreasing heme iron uptake in intestinal cells. The heme form of iron is found in meats, poultry, and fish.
In a foregoing study the authors studied the uptake of non-heme iron found in plants. The bioavailiability of non-heme iron was also found to be impaired by grape seed extract and EGCG. 
Both studies suggest that people at high risk of developing iron deficiency, such as pregnant women and young children, should look at this issue, when taking polyphenols.
Nutritional supplements often contain high concentration of active ingredients which surpass the natural content in foods by several times. This may lead to unwanted results such as iron deficiency. Normal varied diet is therefore the best to keep a healthy nutritional balance.
 Ma Q, Kim EY, Han O: Bioactive Dietary Polyphenols Decrease Heme Iron Absorption by Decreasing Basolateral Iron Release in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. J. Nutr., June 1, 2010; 140(6): 1117 - 1121.
 Kim EY, Ham SK, Shigenaga MK, Han O: Bioactive dietary polyphenolic compounds reduce nonheme iron transport across human intestinal cell monolayers. J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1647-51.
25.08.2010: Kuwait fears fallout from possible leaks of Irans nuclear power plant 
According to the foreign ministry undersecretary Khaled Al-Jarallah Kuwait fall out from future leaks of the the Russian-built nuclear plant in the Iranian city of Bushehr may impair Kuwait.
Iran says that the Bushehr plant adheres to "high standards, has the seal of approval of the UN nuclear watchdog, and the safeguards approval of the International Atomic Energy Agency. There should be no concern about the plant in Bushehr, says Iran's foreign ministry spokesman Ramin Mehmanparast, speaking to reporters. Qatar prime minister stressed the legitimate right of Iran to have the nuclear power plant foooor peaceful use.
However, the nuclear fall out of the accident of Chernobyl, still active in the affected regions after almost 25 years, shows how difficult it is to keep Pandora' s box closed. The nuclear waste of these power plants cannot be handled safely. They have to be stored for thousand of year. Future generations have to live with the remnants of some decades of nuclear fanatics. Germany found that their repositories were unsafe. USA doesn't have any one they litter at open air and cover it with sand. See ”Nuclear Danger” Download pdf
The new awareness of clean energy starts a run to the new economy of the present decade. Solar energy, together with wind turbines may generate clean electricity to supply the European grid and produce hydrogen as energy storage and fuel for transportation. The perception and new technologies and the new markets takes place over night. Do not sleep, be a part of the changing market. See the "Hydrogen Economy": Download pdf
 Kuwait Times 25.08.2010: Iran nuke plant worries Kuwait.
24.08.2010: Germany exports emission of green house gases and air polluion to Brazil 
The German company ThissenKrupp, installed at the periphery of Rio de Janeiro an enormaous steel cookery under the name of “Companhia Siderúrgica do Atlântico (CSA)”, which is planned to produce 5.5 million tons of steel plates per year, using Colombian coal (4 million tons a year).
Once operational, CSA will emit 273,600 tons of pollutants per year, especially carbon monoxide (229,758 tons) and sulphur dioxide (21,540 tons). In addition to the emission of pollutants, the plant will generate 1.3 million tons of blast furnace slag and 382,000 tons of melt shop slag annually. The Environmental Impact Assessment is suspected to have underestimated pollutant concentrations owing to the use of incomplete data on potential down-time.
The construction includes the plant with a capacity of 10 Million Tonnes of steel slabs/y. A coal power plant of 490 mW, consuming 4 Million Tonnes of Columbian hard coal and a port with two terminals, a bridge of 4 kilometres and a pier of 700 metres destabilizing mangroves and sea ground. Chemicals like cadmium, zinc and lead of 20 years of spills caused by Ingá Mercantilm which have settled on the ground of these water, were freed again and sludge of deepening of shipping channels were used to raise the terrain of the construction.
ThyssenKrupp says CSA uses filtration systems of its plant in Duisburg, Germany 
The production lines at ThyssenKrupp CSA will be equipped with the same monitoring and filtration systems utilized by ThyssenKrupp Steel at its Duisburg site. These systems are among the most advanced in the world and reduce pollution from steel production to an absolute minimum. Gases from the coke plant, blast furnace and melt will be used to generate electricity further reducing the impact on the environment.
Dust emission of CSA causes health impairments after start of production in July 2010 
The costs of the construction of the steel plant at the suburbs of Rio were 5,2 billion euro. After complaints of the population, the Rio de Janeiro state's Environment Institute issued a pollution alert which made CSA to cut production of pig iron from 5.000 tons/d down to a maximum of 3.500 tons/d at its new steel mill. The complaint related the dust emissions from a hot metal casting machine. The mill, however was not fined on this under the promise that pollution will decrease in September, when the pollution causing equipment will be replaced.
More than 60% of the production of CSA will go to Allabama (USA) where ThyssenKrupp has a hot-rolled coil steel rolling mill.
CSA is a joint venture with Brazilian miner Vale SA (VALE, VALE5.BR) which owns about 26% of the capital.
Brazilian “Green Steel” is a fairy-tail
Brazilian coal is not cokeable, local coal cannot be used efficiently in steelmaking. Therefore, Brazil’s pig iron industry for export or steelworks absorbs almost all coal and coke imports, which are mainly from Australia (34%), the USA (28%) and Canada (13%). 
The Brazilian government says that the environment ministry aims to produce “green steel” using charcoal from afforested areas instead of coal. The ministry stresses that one ton of pig iron produced from coal emits 1.9 tons of CO2, while the production of 1 ton of green steel removes 1.1 ton of gas from the atmosphere. This is a fairy-tail discrediting the veracity of all statements of the
Brazilian environment ministry. The US-Brazil debt-for-nature swap will be transformed in “green steel”.
Brazil, Is the largest charcoal producer of the world, with more than 12 million metric tons in year 2002, which is mainly for the metallurgy industry. 
 Estadao Siderugica
 Rechtsverletzungen, die von der Companhia Siderúrgica do Atlântico -TKCSA (Thyssen Krupp und Vale) in der Bucht von Sepetiba, in Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien begangen wurden Instituto Políticas Alternativas para o Cone Sul - PACS
 ThyssenKrupp: Fact Sheet: ThyssenKrupp CSA: Biggest private investment in Brazil
 Brazil's CSA Steel Mill Cuts Output On Pollution Warning. FOX Business. 19 August 2010.
 Verax Cosultoria: Economic and Financial Feasibility. Study of LLX Logística S.A.
 Eucalyptus Charcoal.Brazil’s choice for the steel industry. Forest Investment Blog.
23.08.2010: Ship wrecks of the Iraq wars corrode and release oil 
Waleed Al-Fadhel, the leader of Kuwait Dive Team, coral reefs have been damaged by the rapid development in the Gulf as states build islands, dredge channels and build ports. Waters of Kuwait are being impaired by the hundreds of ships which sunk during the Gulf wars. They are now corroded and leaked oil, threatening the coral reefs. The Kuwait Dive Team, formed by volunteers, salvaged more than 69,400 tons of junk from the seabed, and more than 439 shipwrecks. The group is no engaged to clean one of the reefs at Qaruh Island.
It is a difficult job to clean up the environment from the waste of wars. This also includes the responsibility to reduce emission of CO2 as it may acidify the water of the oceans.
 Gulf war wrecks QARUH ISLAND 'a toxic peril' in Kuwait's waters. Kuwait Times 22.08.2010
20.08.2010: Antibiotic resistance gene NDM-1 from India and Pakistan 
Walsh and colleagues 2010 studied the carbapenem drug-resistant bacterial gene called NDM-1, or New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1, first identified in bacteria in India, Pakistan, and recently in UK. This may become a new global health problem.
Most isolates carried the NDM-1 gene on plasmids. The authors assessed the prevalence of bla(NDM-1) carbapenem resistance gene, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in India, Pakistan, and the UK, using PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-restricted genomic DNA methods. Plasmids were analysed by S1 nuclease digestion and PCR typing.
The authors report that NDM-1 was mostly found among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which were highly resistant to all antibiotics except to tigecycline and colistin.
The NDM-1 gene produces an enzyme which breaks up the central ringed structure (beta-lactam), common to most of antibiotics. This structure halts bacteria replication. A beta-lactam ring has an heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. 
Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. They have a structure that renders them highly resistant to beta-lactamases.
The carbapenems are structurally very similar to the penicillins, but the sulfur atom in position 1 of the structure has been replaced with a carbon atom, and hence the name of the group, the carbapenems. 
The NDM-1 gene renders bacteria also resistant to carbapenems, antibiotics of last resort, and the gene can be transferred between different bacteria.
Carbapenems resistance-conferring gene is spreading in India because of an irrational use of antibiotics. Due to an increasing tourism to India for cosmetic surgery the infection spreads to USA, Israel, Greece and Turkey.
Aztreonam resistance leaded by bla NDM-1 gene 
Aztreonam is a synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic (a monobactam), with the nucleus based on a simpler monobactam isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. 
The CDC reported that during January-June 2010, three Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying a newly described resistance mechanism, the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1), were identified from three U.S. states. These isolates, which include an Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae, were resistant to all beta-lactam agents except aztreonam Enterobacteriaceae containing blaNDM-1 are linked to patients which recived medical care in India and Pakistan.
Characterization of a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, bla(NDM-1), and a novel erythromycin esterase gene from India isolates 
Young and colleagues 2009 describe a metallo-beta-lactamase gene, bla(NDM-1), and a n erythromycin esterase gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae 05-506 causing an urinary tract infection of a Swedish patient which travelled to Indian. The isolate was shown to possess a metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) with three resistance-conferring regions: the first contained bla(CMY-4) flanked by ISEcP1 and blc. The second region contained gene cassettes arr-2, a new erythromycin esterase gene. The third region consisted of a new MBL gene, designated bla(NDM-1) which can hydrolyze all beta-lactams except aztreonam.
The authors stress that In addition to K. pneumoniae 05-506, the bla(NDM-1) identified on the Klebsiella pneumoniae , was also found on a plasmid in an Escherichia coli isolated from the patient's feces. Which rises worries that in vivo conjugation takes place.
 Kumarasamy KK, Toleman MA, Walsh TR, Bagaria J, Butt F, Balakrishnan R, Chaudhary U, Doumith M, Giske CG, Irfan S, Krishnan P, Kumar AV, Maharjan S, Mushtaq S, Noorie T, Paterson DL, Pearson A, Perry C, Pike R, Rao B, Ray U, Sarma JB, Sharma M, Sheridan E, Thirunarayan MA, Turton J, Upadhyay S, Warner M, Welfare W, Livermore DM, Woodford N: Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 10.
 Wikipedia: Beta-lactam
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Detection of Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying metallo-beta-lactamase - United States, 2010.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 Jun 25;59(24):750.
 Wikipedia: Aztreonam
 Yong D, Toleman MA, Giske CG, Cho HS, Sundman K, Lee K, Walsh TR.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Dec;53(12):5046-54.: Characterization of a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, bla(NDM-1), and a novel erythromycin esterase gene carried on a unique genetic structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 from India.
20.08.2010: Antibiotic resistance genes transfer between lactic acid abcteria strains 
Toomey and colleagues 2009 describe the ability to transfer antibiotic resistance determinants (plasmid or transposon located) to other lactic acid bacteria. In vitro transfer experiments resulted in high transfer frequencies between all LAB pairs. In a rumen model transconjugants were detected but the frequencies of transfer was low and inconsistent The plant model using alfafa showed higher transfer rates. The authors concluded that lactic acid bacteria can act as a source of genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transmitted to other lactic acid bacteria.
 Toomey N, Monaghan A, Fanning S, Bolton D: Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Marker Genes between Lactic Acid Bacteria in Model Rumen and Plant Environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 May; 75(10): 3146–3152.
19.08.2010: Furan, a cancerogen in food 
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has issued a report
updating results of monitoring on the levels of furan found in food
in heat-treated commercial food products.
Furan is an organic compound formed during heat-treatment
which has been shown to be carcinogenic in animal laboratory studies.
The five coffee categories showed the highest furan content in comparison to the other food groups, with mean values equal to 104 microg/kg for "coffee ready-to-drink", 602 microg/kg for "coffee instant", 1,807 microg/kg for "coffee roasted ground", 1,855 microg/kg for "coffee non specified" and 3,611 for "coffee roasted bean" . The maximum value was found in "coffee roasted ground" with 6,900 microg/kg. In the non-coffee categories mean values ranged between 3.2 microg/kg for "infant formula" and 40 microg/kg for certain "baby food" categories. The highest maximum concentrations for the non-coffee categories were found in "baby food" with 224 microg/kg and "soups" with 225 microg/kg.
In all coffee subcategories the upper bound mean furan content was lower in the beverage coffee samples than in the raw coffee samples. There is obviously a dilution effect in preparing the coffee.
The mean furan content in infant formulae was 3.2 microg/kg. The mean furan content in the different baby food categories ranged from 5 microg/kg for baby food containing only fruits to 40 microg/kg for baby food containing either meat and vegetables or vegetables only.
Maximum values exceeding a level of 100 microg/kg were found in cereal products like puffed rise, in fish products like mackerels and sardines in tomato sauce, in meat products like canned duck with lentils or rabbit with prunes, in soups like tomato soup and in gravy. Milk based processed food showed low mean furan content (6 microg/kg), but interestingly a maximum furan content of 80 microg/kg was found in sweetened condensed milk.
EFSA recommends that future testing for furan should provide a detailed analysis of samples before and after cooking, with a precise indication of cooking time, temperature and handling. The EFSA also stresses that the reduction of furan formation in food is more difficult compared to the reduction of acrylamide, since furan formation is closely connected with the taste and smell of foods. It can be concluded that furan is present in a variety of heat-treated commercial foods for adults and infants.
Soybean oil and sunflower oil in starch- based emulsion developed cancerogenous furan 
Owczarek-Fendor and colleagues 2010 found that furan, was formed during sterilisation heating process in starch-based emulsions of Soya bean oil and sunflower oil, when the oils were oxidised.
No furan or very low amounts were created using fresh, not oxidised soybean oil and sunflower oil, and only minor amounts of furan formation were found in food-relevant systems containing fresh lipids.
Emulsions of olive, linseed, and rapeseed oils developed only after a storage of 11 and 22 days an increase in furan content which, however, was much lower than the soybean and olive oil based emulsions.Soyabean oil and sunfloweroil were rich in omega-3 unsaturated alfa-linolenic acid. These faty acids were associated with the generation of furan if the oils were oxidized. However, high-oleic sunflower oil did not generated furan when heated and oxidised. Para-anisidine values could not be related to the amount of generated furan.
The authors concluded that both fatty acid composition and oxidation status of oil seem to determine furan generation upon heating.
 EFA updates data on furan in food. News 30 July 2010
 Owczarek-Fendor A, De Meulenaer B, Scholl G, Adams A, Van Lancker F, Yogendrarajah P, Uytterhoeven V, Eppe G, De Pauw E, Scippo ML, De Kimpe N: Importance of fat oxidation in starch-based emulsions in the generation of the process contaminant furan. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Aug 6.
17.08.2010: Bayer will terminate all uses of Aldicarb by 2018 
According to a new risk assessment conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aldicarb, an N-methyl carbamate insecticide may pose unacceptable dietary risks, especially to infants and young children. Aldicarb is registered for use as a systemic insecticide and nematicide on agricultural crops. The Agency and Bayer CropScience reached an agreement to end use of the pesticide aldicarb sold in the United States under the name of Temik by Bayer.
Bayer will first end aldicarb use on citrus and potatoes and will adopt risk mitigation measures for other uses to protect groundwater resources. New measures to protect shallow drinking water wells in vulnerable areas of the southeastern U.S. coastal plain and lower application rates will be immediately added to product labels for use on cotton, soybeans, and peanuts.
The production of aldicarb will be phased out by December 31, 2014. All remaining aldicarb uses will end no later than August 2018.
Aldicarb at levels higher than those typically found in food has the potential to cause various effects such as sweating, nausea, dizziness and blurred vision, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Aldicarb is registred in more than 50 countries including Australia, Brazil, Latin America, South Africa and USA. Essential uses status in European Union.
 EPA: Agreement to Terminate All Uses of Aldicarb.
16.08.2010: Controversial research of the German “Polarstern” ship, Inuits fear to loose seafood resources 
The Nunavut Court of Justice stopped the German “RV Polarstern” of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, a research which is part of the Eastern Canadian Arctic Seismic Experiment (ECASE).
Heinrich Miller from the German Institute says that tests were to provide details about Earth's crust and upper mantle and offer insight into the geological history of the ocean basin between Greenland and Canada.
The German ship planned seismic tests firing off air guns into the water every 10–15 seconds around the clock sailing along the Baffin Bay up to Greenland. The researchers wanted to use 30 submerged seismometers and a 4,500-metre-long hydrophone streamer to record the effects of the impacts on the ocean floor to cover a 800-kilometre-long line along the coast of Baffin Island. This would take 80 hour of intense sound disturbance of marine life.
Scott Highleyman, international director of the US-based Pew Environment Group's Arctic programme says that not science, but oil and gas in the Arctic is being targeted by the tests of “Polarstern”. The Department Natural Resources Canada and the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources had joint to study the hydrocarbon potential of the northern Baffin Bay sedimentary basin, including geo-mapping for energy and minerals programme.
The Inuit population fears that the airguns might disturb narwhals, beluga, walrus, seals and polar bears in Lancaster Sound in their migratory route impacting the traditional hunting ground of the native population, furthermore prospects for oil drilling in the region may be risen.
Miller said that areas of immediate interest to oil companies were unlikely to be covered by tests, but that the data could say whether the region has oil and gas potential.
After the disaster of the Horizon oil spill fears of Inuits to loose marine food resources can be understood. Meanwhile drilling for crude oil 200 km from the coast of Greenland is ongoing.
The work of the German Alfred Wegener Institute faced already a controversy in Summer 2009 when the “Polarstern” spread iron salt in the South Pacific to increase the growth of algae to capture CO2 from the atmosphere with negative results. 
 Inuit concerns stall seismic testing. Nature News. 12.08.2010. Doi:10.1038/news.2010.403
 Rechtsstreit in der Arktis: Inuit stoppen deutsches Forschungsschiff. Spiegel Online 16.08.2010.
16.08.2010: Very low intakes of saturated fats may increased risk of stroke, questioning the AHA recommendation of a maximum of 16g/d of saturated fats 
Saturated fat intakes are known to rise blood cholesterol levels, increasing the risk of heart disease. A study of Yamagishi and colleagues 2010 suggests that other pathways as found in ischemic stroke may be implicated in ischemic stroke.
The inverse association of saturated fats with overall stroke mortality was especially strong for intraparenchymal hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. The study also states that a reduction of intake of saturated fatty acids, together with increased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) resulted in an additional increase in stroke mortality.
The authors speculate that in large vessels saturated fats can increase the risks of atherosclerotic plaques. However, in small vessels low saturated fatty acids levels may lead to angionecrosis, reduction of smooth muscles cells and increased fragility of vascular walls.
The study is part of the ongoing Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evolution of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) The study included a follow up of 14.1 years, and included intraparenchymal and subarachnoid hemorrhages and ischemic stroke as well as heart diseases such as ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest, and heart failure.
The study says that an intake below 18 g of fatty acids/day increase the stroke risk by 20%, a diet with less than 11g/day increased the stroke risk by 66%.
Following this study the recommendations of the American Heart Association of a maximum of 16g per day of saturated fatty acids must be revised. The authors, however, say that on the other hand, an increase of saturated fatty acids in the diet might rise the risk on ischemic heart disease, and more studies are needed before public recommendations should be changed.
 Yamagishi K, Iso H, Yatsuya H, Tanabe N, Date C, Kikuchi S, Yamamoto A, Inaba Y, Tamakoshi A; for the JACC Study Group: Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Study? Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4. Doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.29146
15.08.2010: Mediterranean diet reduces risk of gastric cancer 
The Mediterranean diet is believed to protect against cancer. Buckland and colleagues 2010 explored the association between a relative Mediterranean diet and incident gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study within a mean follow-up of 8.9 years.
No association between moderate alcohol intake and risk of gastric cancer was found in this study. This legitimates the use of moderate consumption of red wine, a characteristic element of the Mediterranean diet.
The authors conclude that a relative Mediterranean diet is associated with a significant reduction of risk of gastric adenocarcinoma.
 Buckland G, Agudo A, Luján L, Jakszyn P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Palli D, Boeing H, Carneiro F, Krogh V, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Panico S, Nesi G, Manjer J, Regnér S, Johansson I, Stenling R, Sanchez MJ, Dorronsoro M, Barricarte A, Navarro C, Quirós JR, Allen NE, Key TJ, Bingham S, Kaaks R, Overvad K, Jensen M, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Peeters PH, Numans ME, Ocké MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Morois S, Boutron-Ruault MC, Trichopoulou A, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Lund E, Couto E, Boffeta P, Jenab M, Riboli E, Romaguera D, Mouw T, González CA: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb;91(2):381-90. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28209.
15.08.2009: US court prohibits GMO sugar beet from Monsanto 
United states sugar beet are 95 % genetic modified plants. Genuity® Roundup Ready® sugarbeets were introduced to farmers during the 2008-2009 crop season. A court decided now that the US government authorised the planting of the GMO sugar beet of Monsanto before environmental impact statement had been completed and finally approved.
More than half of sugar produced in USA comes from sugar beet. The court denied further use of the GMO seed. Growers must use former not GMO seeds, starting in 2011.
Monsanto fears a drop of two billion Dollar of revenues in 2011 and 2012 due to this prohibition. It may take years to get a new approval for the GMO sugar beet. BASF works together with Monsanto developing GMO seeds of corn, rape, wheat, soy and cotton. BASF developed GMO sugar beet plants with KWS company.
 Federal Court Rescinds USDA Approval of Genetically Engineered Sugar Beets. The Center of Food Safety. 13.08.2010.
14.08.2010: US-Brazil debt-for-nature swap will be used for the plantation of eucalyptus for the Brazilian paper and the steel industry 
The United States will cut Brazil's debt payments by $21 million under a debt-for-nature that will protect the Latin American country's endangered Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlantica), Caatinga and Cerrado ecosystems. The three ecosystems targeted are under great threat.
US-Brazil Debt-for-Nature Swap, a beautiful product from the portfolio of Wall Street banks
The US-Brazil debt-for-nature swap will boost the overheated Brazilian paper and steel industry by triggering eucalyptus plantations which expand by over seven percent annually.
The pulp industry consumes about 45% of harvested Eucalyptus logs, while an estimated 48% is used for fuel wood and for making charcoal for the steel industry.
Brazil's government has committed to use only charcoal from eucalyptus forestry plantations instead of high carbon coals, in order to reduce the carbon footprint of the iron/steel. Greenwood- Management.com calls for investments in eucalyptus plantations . The Broker calculates achievable returns of 15% on Brazilian eucalyptus. These swaps make money but have nothing to do with forest protection. Only tiny remnants of the Mata Atlantica are left. Plantation of eucalyptus will use only arable fields which may be accessed by machines and compete with food crops.
Marina da Silva resined as Brazilian environment minister because of the bad situation of the protection of the rain tree. Minister Izabella Teixeira and business experts took over the ministry aiming to speed up industrialisation of the Amazon region.
Brazilian “Green Steel” is a fairy-tail 
The Brazilian government says that the environment ministry aims to produce “green steel” using charcoal from afforested areas instead of coal. The ministry stresses that one ton of pig iron produced from coal emits 1.9 tons of CO2, while the production of 1 ton of green steel removes 1.1 ton of gas from the atmosphere. This is a fairy-tail discrediting the veracity of all statements of the Brazilian environment ministry. The US-Brazil debt-for-nature swap will be transformed in “green steel”.
 U.S. signs debt-for-nature swap with Brazil to protect forests
mongabay.com. August 13, 2010
 Greenwood- Management.com
 Eucalyptus Charcoal.Brazil’s choice for the steel industry. Forest Investment Blog. Found: 14.08.2010.
12.08.2010: Researchers recommend statin supplement to unhealthy fast food to reduce heart disease 
Francis and colleagues 2010 found that a daily consumption of statin, with the exception of pravastatin, reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by fatty hamburger with cheese and a small milkshake. The authors stress that cardiovascular harm caused by unhealthy fatty diet may be reduced giving statin as supplement to their meals.
The authors suggest that fast food chains offer statin in addition to free condiments such as salt, sugar and spices. However, statins may not be a substitute for a healthy lifestyle, varied diet low in saturated fats, regular exercise, weight loss, and smoking cessation,
 Ferenczi EA, Asaria P, Hughes AD, Chaturvedi N, Francis DP: Can a Statin Neutralize the Cardiovascular Risk of Unhealthy Dietary Choices? Am J Cardiol. 2010 Aug 15;106(4):587-592.
11.08.2010: H1N1 now in the post-pandemic period (Disease activity at seasonal levels)
10 August 2010 - WHO Director-General, Dr Margaret Chan announced that the H1N1 influenza virus has moved into the post-pandemic period. However, localized outbreaks of various magnitudes are likely to continue. WHO says that the world is no longer in phase 6 of influenza pandemic alert. The new H1N1 virus has largely run its course. 
The WHO recommends monitoring for unusual events, such as clusters of severe respiratory illness or death, and monitoring the H1N1 2009 virus for important genetic, antigenic or functional changes, such as antiviral drug sensitivity. 
Costs of exaggerated panic of advising institute in Germany 
The Rober Koch Institute was responsible for advices to the Health Departments regarding vaccination of German population. The institute spread panic informations, leading to the order of 34 Million H1N1 vaccines. Only 4,17 Mio units were used following a restricted number of illness and mild disease. 336 Million EURO of unused vaccines must be paid by taxpayers.
 H1N1 in post-pandemic period. WHO
 WHO recommendations for the post-pandemic period. WHO 10.08.2010
 Schweinegrippe-Impfstoffe: Bund und Laender streiten über Millionenkosten
Spiegel Online 11.08.2010.
08.08.2010: Australian nuclear waste dump at Muckaty Station
Australia hosts one of the world's first nuclear research reactors. It was place of British nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, and is an important supplier of uranium to the world.
Disposal of nuclear waste is becoming crucial
Minister Martin Ferguson announced in February 2010 his plans to dump nuclear waste at Muckaty Station, 120km north of Tennant Creek, in the Northern Territory. Australian nuclear waste is currently stored at numerous sites around the country. Some Australian radioactive waste is also stored in Scotland and France. Federal Resources Minister Martin Ferguson said that the storage facility needed to be established before Australian waste was brought back from Scotland and France in 2014 and 2015. 
Australia has total holdings of around 4 300 cubic metres of radioactive waste which is not as much compared to other countries, such as Canada with a total holdings of more than 1.8 million cubic metres of low level waste alone.
Will Muckaty Station become a global repository of nuclear waste?
Senator Bob Brown says it is only a matter of time before Australia's first nuclear waste dump stores high level waste from overseas. Senator Brown calls for nuclear waste to be stored where it is produced, such as Lucas Heights in Sydney. He reasons that nuclear waste must be stored at its origin and not dumped somewhere. 
The former ALP prime minister Bob Hawke referred to the moral, financial and environmental responsibility of Australia to assess a nuclear waste industry. Gareth Evans, says Australia should back all waste derived from the uranium it sells. 
According to The Environmenter Centre Northern Territory there is a very real chance that in the future it will be expanded to take high level radioactive waste from nuclear reactors in Europe, Asia and North America, including reprocessed spent fuel rods which are amongst the most highly dangerous radioactive materials produced by the nuclear industry anywhere in the world. This waste remains dangerous to people, wildlife and the environment for thousands of years. There is a growing global crisis in high level waste disposal and many overseas companies and governments are looking to Australia to dump their waste. 
World Nuclear Association director-general John Ritch said that Australians had nothing to fear from accepting radioactive waste. Thousands of years of radiation sounds like a long time, but there are many places on earth that have been geologically stable for many millions of years, he argued.
 Nuclear waste dump is a duty: Ferguson. Brisbane Times. 03.03.2010.
 Why we oppose the proposed Commonwealth radioactive waste dump in the Northern Territory. The Environmenter Centre Northern Territory. 27. April 2006.
 Store nuclear waste in Australia: Gareth Evans. The Australian 06.08.2010.
 Store nuclear waste at source, not in NT: Brown. ABC News 04.08.2010.
 Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Library: Radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management in Australia. 01.01.2006
07.08.2010: Oysters, climate change and increasing pollution of costal waters
Marine life is endangered by carbon dioxide and pollution of estuary and low oxygen levels of and pollution of coastal waters. Rising acidification low oxygen content caused by nutrient-rich sewage and a mix to toxic metal salts impair respiratory and physiologic pathway of marine animals. Oysters are an indicator of changes in marine habitat and are important for the food industry.
Oysters survival are threatened by rising CO2 levels 
According to Sokolova, Ivanina and Kurochkin 2010 juvenile oysters kept under high CO2 grow at a faster rate than the adults and need to use more energy for survival, reduced growth of their shells and their soft bodies. The shells presented increased fragility.
These effects were less pronounced in the adult oysters with slow growth and slower metabolisms compared with juvenile oysters. The authors expect to see huge effects on oyster populations in the future.
The oysters also respond to increasing CO2 levels by increasing the expression of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that regulates pH and regulates production of bicarbonate, which is used to make the shell, but the researchers fear that it is not enough. The authors suggest to monitor oysters as an indicator of the reaction of marine life on rising acidification of water.
Low oxygen levels and acidified oceans reduce immunity of marine organisms 
Increased levels of carbon dioxide cause the water to become more acidic. Nutrient-rich run-off reduce the oxygen content of coastal waters. Steps to reduce greenhouse emissions and minimize nutrient-rich run-off along coastlines are urgently needed to protect marine life. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses threaten marine animals which need a sound immune system to protect from infection. Louis Burnett and Karen Burnett report a reduced immune response of fish, oysters, crabs and shrimp under low oxygen and high carbon dioxide conditions resulting in decreased ability to fight off infection of Vibrio bacteria.
The authors write that if marine animals are challenged blood cells clump up to attack the pathogen. These blood cells also lodge in the gills. Immune response to an infection reduces, therefore, the gill function. The exchange of oxygen is reduced by about 40 percent making it difficult to live in low oxygen conditions. The situation is aggravated gets with increased carbon dioxide levels.
Te authors report further that marine organisms exposed to bacteria under low oxygen, high carbon dioxide conditions loose the ability to react to the situation, and start a molecular pathways of cell death.
The authors stress that coastal animals are adapted to fluctuating levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide, however cannot survive without responding to theses stresses. Deep-water animals may be much more affected by ocean acidification because they are not trained by exposure to the ebb and flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.
Heavy metal mixtures impact on acid-base balance and respiratory status of oysters 
Macey and colleagues 2010 assessed the impact of low-dose mixtures of heavy metals, such as copper, zinc and cadmium, which are common pollutants in coastal estuaries. Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. were exposed to Cd, Zn or Cu, either alone or in combination. Oxidative membrane damage from these pollutants, as found by the authors using linear analysis came along with disturbance of acid-base balance in oysters. Artificial neural network ANN analysis provided further details of metal interactions with acid-base balance which may predict oxidative damage. The authors concluded that ANN may be useful to study subacute effects of contaminants as found in estuary waters.
Effect of cadmium in estuarine and coastal waters on oyster cells eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica 
Ivanina, Cherkasov and Sokolova 2008 report that exposure to cadmium resulted in an increase of protein synthesis, associated with the increased expression of metallothioneins and stress proteins ( heat shock proteins HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) in oyster cells. GSH synthesis was inhibited.
The authors stress that cadmium detoxification mechanisms using metallothioneins and GSH cannot fully protect protein in gill cells which call on help of HSPs as a secondary line of cellular defence.
The authors conclude that gill tissues of oysters are very sensitive to cadmium exposure, resulting in reduced oxygen uptake, energy misbalance and impaired respiratory efficiency.
Stop carbon dioxide emission now, says new study at Carnegy Institution 
According to the study removing CO2 from the atmosphere would reduce global temperature less than half of CO2-induced warming. The researchers explain that the enormous amount of CO2 which has been absorbed in the oceans will partially return to the atmosphere. A similar effect will take place on land, where a drop of atmospheric CO2 alters the balance of the land carbon cycle, causing the emission of carbon dioxide from the soil to exceed its uptake by plants.
The study coauthor Ken Caldeira recommend to prevent carbon dioxide emissions now rather than trying to clean up the atmosphere later which may be extremely inefficient.
 American Physiological Society (2010, August 5). High levels of carbon dioxide threaten oyster survival. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 6, 2010.
 Coastal creatures may have reduced ability to fight off infections in acidified oceans. August 5, 2010. Escience news.
 Macey BM, Jenny MJ, Williams HR, Thibodeaux LK, Beal M, Almeida JS, Cunningham C, Mancia A, Warr GW, Burge EJ, Holland AF, Gross PS, Hikima S, Burnett KG, Burnett L, Chapman RW: Modelling interactions of acid-base balance and respiratory status in the toxicity of metal mixtures in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2010 Mar;155(3):341-9. Epub 2009 Dec 1.
 Ivanina AV, Cherkasov AS, Sokolova IM: Effects of cadmium on cellular protein and glutathione synthesis and expression of stress proteins in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin. J Exp Biol. 2008 Feb;211(Pt 4):577-86.
 Long Cao et al: Scrubbing CO2 from Atmosphere Could Be a Long-Term Commitment. Carnegy Intitution for Science. July 2, 2010.
01.08.2010: A new, drug-resistant strain of E. coli is causing serious infectious diseases 
The ST131 Escherichia coli strain, was identified in serious antimicrobial-resistant infections in USA by James Johnson and colleagues 2010. Isolates of 2007 exhibited fluoroquinolone or extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance.
The authors stress that the ST 131 strain has a high level of virulence together with an antimicrobial resistance. It is becoming almost untreatable, compared with older high virulent Escherichia coli which were known as susceptible, and other resistant strains which were less virulent.
 Johnson J. et al: Emerging E. coli Strain Causes Many Antimicrobial-Resistant Infections in U.S. August 1, 2010 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.