29.06.2007: EU Council of Ministers postpones its decision on approval of GM Amflora potato from BASF
The Council of Ministers postponed the decision over whether GM potato Amflora may be commercially cultivated in Europe in December.
On 14. July 2007 the trade commissioner Peter Mandelson delivered a strong exhortation to the EU to take a lead in shaping global rules on GM trade warned about the economic consequences. Na statesman can take the risks of acting hastily and place financial and trade interests in front of safety. The trade commissioner Mandelson would be well advised to look after his trade and leave the biotechnology to the board of scientific advisers whose job is to look after food and environmental safety. 
Amflora is deeply modified in the starch it produces. Non-GM potatos produce two components starch. 80% are amylopectine with a long molecule with thickening properties. and 20% amylose with short molecule with gelling character. Amflora produces only amilopectin, wich is more useful for the industry as amylose.
Biotechnology: EU Trade Commissioner needs GM food to increasing world trade. www.ourfood-news.com : 17.06.2007
29.06.2007 EFSA reaffirms its risk assessment of genetically modified maize MON 863 
The EFSA has examined a paper by Séralini et al. on the statistical evaluation of a 90-day feeding study in animals with genetically modified maize MON863, to identify any consequences for EFSA’s risk assessment of the safety of MON 863. The paper presents an alternative statistical analysis of the 90-day rat study that was considered in the original risk assessment.
Following a detailed statistical review and analysis by an EFSA Task Force, EFSA’s GMO Panel has concluded that this re-analysis of the data does not raise any new safety concerns.
The main conclusions are:
- The statistical analysis made by the authors of the paper did not take into account certain
important statistical considerations. The assumptions underlying the statistical methodology
employed by the authors led to misleading results.
- EFSA considers that the paper does not present a sound scientific justification in order to question
the safety of MON 863 maize.
- Observed statistically significant differences reported by Monsanto, Séralini et al., and EFSA, were considered not to be biologically relevant. Therefore, the GMO Panel sees no
reason to revise its previous Opinions that the MON 863 maize would not have an adverse effect in the context of its proposed use.
Prior to this most recent work, MON 863 maize has been subject to a comprehensive risk assessment by EFSA and by other authorities which did not identify any adverse effects on human and animal health or the environment. The 90-day rat study analysed by this paper is one element of the comprehensive risk assessment of MON863 maize. In addition to the original Opinion in April 2004, this study has been reviewed again twice since then, prior to this recent work.
other related documents:
Letter to the Commission
The GMO Panel statement
EFSA statistical analysis of the Monsanto data
 EFSA reaffirms its risk assessment of genetically modified maize MON 863. Press release 28.06.2007.
29.06.2007: Western root worm, a pest spread by global traffic and monoculturing 
Intensive air traffic, monoculturing, mild winters force agriculture to look after GM organisms to counter new coming pests in Europe.
The Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) widely spread in American has now moved to Europe. It is responsible for massive crop yield losses in USA. The rootworm larvae chew the aerial roots of maize stalks, penetrate roots and enter the inner stalk. Adult beetles emerge in the summer between July and September feeding on aerial plant parts, especially such as pollen and silk reducing fertility of the maize plantation.
Agriculture combated the rootworm with costly insecticides. In 2003, the US approved GM maize MON 863 and was authorised for food and feed by the EU Commission and regarded as safe by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2006, together with the authorisation for import and industrial use of MON 810. Three more western corn rootworm resistant maize lines joined MON 863 and are currently Awaiting approval: are line MIR 604, line 59122, and line MON 88017. The line, 59122, is awaiting approval for cultivation in Europe.
GM maize is seen as a possible counterfeit to the plant disease.
The pest native to Central America moved to the maize monoculture regions of North America finding there a perfect habitat. Massive Air traffic bulk loaded maize freight has transported the beetle over the Atlantic. The insects are probably attracted by the light of aircraft cargo compartments. They are therefore seen in the proximities of destination airports starting with the Belgrade airport.
EU measures 2003
In October 2003, the European Commission has set measures to slow down the spread of the western corn rootworm:
Traps with pheromones to attract female beetles are distributed. In case the western corn rootworm is found, a one kilometre radius surrounding the site of incidence is declared a zone of infestation, and a five kilometre radius is declared a security zone.
The affected sites may not be planted with maize the following year. In addition, the sites must be treated with soil insecticides, soil and plant parts are not allowed to leave the controlled zone. Only after a certain period of time is harvesting permitted.
Crop rotation is not enough as the long term pest management. In USA the beetles have adapted to the crop rotation between corn and soy. The larvae can also survive on wild plants and weeds of test fields.
Stefan Vidal says that chemical control methods and transgenic maize are the only management strategies that can be effective in regions of intensive maize cultivation. This is urgent, because of continual invasion and its potential establishment in Italy of the new pest will threaten maize production areas in other EU member countries in the immediate future. 
Tactics to avoid resistance 
The American Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed what is known as resistance management comprising the refuges zones.
A strips of four meters of non-GM maize must be planted around the GM maize field. The so called refuges from exposure to toxin enable survival of susceptible individuals, which decreases the intensity of selection. Ideally, relatively large numbers of susceptible individuals from refuges survive and mate with few resistant survivors from transgenic plants.
Unexpectedly, the estimated resistance allele frequency did not increase and Bt cotton remained extremely effective against pink bollworm. The same effect was noted later with bt Maize. 
The delay in resistance can be explained by refuges of cotton without Bt toxin, recessive inheritance of resistance, incomplete resistance, and fitness costs associated with resistance. 
 Naar aanleiding van de adviesvraag betreffende het dossier EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/12,
maislijn 59122 voor de import en verwerking van genetisch gemodificeerde mais
door Pioneer Hi-Bred International, adviseert de COGEM
 Biomatnet: Threat to European maize production by invasive quarantine pest, Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera): a new sustainable crop management approach. QLK5-1999-01110
 Tabashnik, Bruce E.: Seeking the root of insect resistance to transgenic plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 94, pp. 3488–3490, April 1997
 Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Patin, Amanda L.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Liu, Yong-Biao; Carriere, Yves; Sims, Maria A.; Antilla, Larry.: Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in field populations of pink bollworm PNAS 2000 97: 12980-12984
 Tabashnik, B. E.; Dennehy,T. J.; Carriere, Y.: Delayed resistance to transgenic cotton in pink bollworm. PNAS, October 25, 2005; 102(43): 15389 - 15393.
29.06.2007: Nutrition terminology databank available now 
28.06.2007: Wild birds infected by avian flue virus found in Germany 
Six wild birds in Bavaria and three swans in Saxony found dead due to infection with the H5N1 virus on end of July 2007. The Federal Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Horst Seehofer calls for vigilantness on this matter.
Safety rules concerning dead or diseased wild birds according to the Federal association of practicing veterinary surgeons ( Bundesverband Deutscher Tierärzte) 
- Merciness with sick wild birds should not invite to incautiosness. Never touch wild animals with bare hands.
- Dead animals or wild birds with signs of disease must be reported immediately at the next veterinary office or official health department.
- No free run for dogs and cats should be allowed for dogs and cats in epidemic areas
 Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection: Neue Fälle von Vogelgrippe nachgewiesen
 AHO Aktuell 27.06.2007: Vogelgrippe: Hinweise zum Umgang mit kranken oder verendeten Tieren
27.06.2007 Low-Carbohydrate diets, like the Atkins diet may reduce beneficial gut bacteria 
Sylvia Duncan and colleagues 2007 found in a study that prolonged use of very low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets may decreased concentrations of butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria (mainly bifidobacteria) in faeces.
According to the authors butyrate production is determined by the content of fermentable carbohydrate in the diet. Other studies had found that butyrate stops cancer cells from growing, and so helps prevent colorectal cancer.
The authors stress that plenty of sources of fibre found in fruit and vegetables are important to provide the right sort of carbohydrates for the beneficial bacteria if low carbohydrate diets are to be consumed for long periods of time.
Other critics concerning this type of diet is the higher risk of clogged arteries and heart attack in the long-term.
 Duncan, Sylvia H.; Belenguer, Alvaro; Holtrop, Grietje; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; Flint, Harry J.; Loble Gerald E.: Reduced Dietary Intake of Carbohydrates by Obese Subjects Results in Decreased Concentrations of Butyrate and Butyrate-Producing Bacteria in Feces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Volume 73, Number 4, Pages 1073-1078 doi:10.1128/AEM.02340-06
27.06.2007: The Aspartame controversy
The 2005 Ramazzini publication: Aspartame linked to increased risk of leukaemia, lymphomas and breast cancer: In 2005 Morango Soffritti and colleagues at the Ramazzini Foundation found aspartame to increase lymphomas and leukaemias in females. They write in their publication of 2005:”The results of this mega-experiment indicate that Aspartame is a multipotential carcinogenic agent, even at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, much less than the current acceptable daily intake. On the basis of these results, a reevaluation of the present guidelines on the use and consumption of APM is urgent and cannot be delayed.” 
The 2007 Ramazzini publication: Foetal life and children at increased cancer risc due to Aspartame 
In their second long-term carcinogenicity bioassay on APM the authors conclude that when lifespan exposure to Aspartame begins during foetal life, its carcinogenic effects are increased.
On the basis of the present findings, the authors believe that a review of the current regulations
governing the use of aspartame cannot be delayed. This review is particularly urgent with regard to
aspartame-containing beverages, heavily consumed by children. The authors stress that other studies were made on aged people and did not consider pregnancy and infants. 
What consumer can do: Avoid Diet Pepsi, Diet Cola, yoghurt light soft drinks light, diet yoghurt 
This has led some consumer groups, particularly in the US, to call for a review of the safety data on aspartame and for consumers to avoid products that contain the ingredient. Aspartame is used in carbonated and powdered soft drinks, hot chocolate, chewing gum, candy, desserts, yogurt, tabletop sweeteners, and vitamins. As a result of the new study, for the first time CSPI downgraded aspartame on its online Chemical Cuisine directory from a “use caution” rating to “everyone should avoid.” CSPI also urges everyone to avoid the artificial sweeteners acesulfame potassium and saccharin. It rates sucralose, also known by the brand name Splenda, as safe. 
On The Early Show 24.April 2007, medical contributor Dr. Mallika Marshall said: “ ... I think we should probably be a little less cavalier about giving our children tons of foods with artificial sweeteners and probably should go back to the basics of milk and water and fruits and vegetables instead of diet soda and reduced calorie foods." OurFood strongly supports this statement. 
Official food regulators: USA FDA and European EFSA find no reason to reconsider the approval of Aspartame 
FDA: The Acceptable Daily Intake of aspartame in the United States is 50 mg per kg of body weight. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says that it finds no reason to alter its previous conclusion that aspartame is safe as a general purpose sweetener in food. The FDA alleges that the conclusions of the two Ramazzini studies are not consistent with other studies evaluated by FDA.
According to FDA Aspartame was first approved in the United States in 1981 and is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners. When metabolised by the body, aspartame is broken down into two common amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, and a third substance, methanol. These three substances are available in similar or greater amounts from eating common foods.
European Union EFSA: the first Ramazzini study in May 2006 the EFSA responded to the 2005 Ramazzini report stating that there was no need for a further safety review of aspartame nor a revision of the acceptable daily intake of 40 mg/kg body weight. 
CSPI calls for urgent review of the study: In the US, consumer group the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) called on the FDA to urgently review the study, regarding the fact that aspartame-containing beverages are heavily consumed by children. 
No risk of cancer linked to saccharin, aspartame and other sweeteners: The Milan case-control study 2007 [ 7]
The epidemiological study in Milan, Italy concluded that there was no indication of an association between sweetener consumption and cancer risk . A Gallu and colleagues 2006 found no association between saccharin, aspartame and other sweeteners and the risk of several common neoplasms.
The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study on aspartame  
Unhee Lim and colleagues 2006 of the National Cancer Institute in a study on people found no increased cancer risk in a group aged 50 to 71, consuming 2 cans of soda per day ( 400 mg aspartame/day).
Aspartame consumption:  In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, aspartame consumption ranged from 0 to 3400 mg per day about 19 cans of soda at the high end. There are 180 mg of aspartame in a 12 ounce can of diet soda.
FDA's Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of aspartame is 50 mg per kilogram of body weight or about 3,750 mg (21 cans of diet soda) for an adult weighing 75 kilograms (165 lb).
The average aspartame consumption among diet beverage consumers in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was 200 mg per day, or about 7 percent of the ADI.
An animal study that fed aspartame to rats saw lymphoma/leukemia increase in female rats, starting from 20 mg per kilogram of body weight (a person weighing 75 kilograms or 165 lbs, consuming 1500 mg aspartame, or about 8 cans of diet soda.
 Soffritti, Morando;Belpoggi, Fiorella; Esposti,Davide Degli; Lambertini, Luca; Tibaldi, Eva; Rigano, Anna: First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 114, Number 3, March 2006
 Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Tibaldi, Eva; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lauriola, Michela: Lifespan Exposure to Low Doses of Aspartame Beginning During Prenatal Life Increases Cancer Effects in Rats. Environmental Health Perspectives. On-line 13 June 2007, doi: 10.1289/ehp.10271
CSPI: FDA Should Reconsider Aspartame Cancer Risk, Say Experts. New Rat Study Links Artificial Sweetener with Lymphomas, Breast Cancer
 CBS News New York, April 24, 2007Aspartame's Safety Questioned Again. Another Study Suggests It Heightens Cancer Risk
 FDA: FDA Statement on European Aspartame Study. CFSAN/Office of Food Additive Safety
April 20, 2007.
 The EFSA Journal (2006) 356, 1-44.: Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to a new long-term carcinogenicity study on aspartame Question number EFSA-Q-2005-122 Adopted on 3 May 2006
Gallu, S.; Scotti L.; Negri, E.R Talamini R.; Franceschi S.; Montella M.; Giacosa, A.; Dal Maso, L.; La Vecchia, C.: Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk in a network of case–control studies(The Annals of Oncology, doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl346)
 Lim, Unhee, Subar A.F., Mouw T., Hartge P., Morton L.M., Stolzenberg-Solomon R., Campbell D., Hollenbeck A.R., Schatzkin A.: Consumption of aspartame-containing beverages and incidence of hematopoietic and brain malignancies. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2006. Vol. 15.
 National Cancer Institute: Aspartame and Cancer: Questions and Answers.
23.06.2007: GM maize Herculex RW import approval on the EU agenda
Representatives from the 27 EU member states will vote on the 25 of June 2007 to authorise imports GM Maize 59122 known as Herculex RW with the bt protein resisting the maize rootworm. Approval will be for use in food, feed and processing.
Herculex RW has been planted for the first time in US in 2006 and was approved . Australia, New Zealand, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Philippines and Taiwan.EFSA approved it in March 2007. Only Austria and Luxenburg may block the vote. Overrunning Austria and Luxenburg will not be to difficult for Herculex RW which will contaminate the whole European feed (meat, eggs, aquaculture), the glucose-fructose syrup (broadly used in all fruit yoghurt and dairy products, bakery products).
The European Green Party is against the authorisation claiming that there are serious and legitimate health concerns about Herculex RW maize as changes in the blood parameters and in liver weight in rats fed with this GM variety were found in a research.
This is being sustained by the Italian Green Party and the Italian farmers' union which also protested against the plans to test GM versions of GM olives and tomatoes. Organic associations strongly protest against an increasing contamination of their products by GM intrusion.
23.06.2007: The European Green Airplane 
At the Paris Air Show in June 2007, European Science and Research Commissioner Janez Potočnik presented plans for a major public/private partnership for a greener air transport system "Clean Sky" Its objectives are to reduce CO2 emissions by around 40%, NOx emissions by 60% and noise by 50%. applying to three main aircraft categories (long range, regional, rotorcraft). The EU will contribute €800 million.
Clean Sky Initiative aims to develop advanced technologies for the next generation of aircraft in order to establish an innovative and competitive Air Transport System.
It is well understood that US will not join this initiative. It is well understood that the European Union hat signed the open air pact with USA hoping to double air traffic which is good for business. However, it is also well understood that air traffic must be reduced to a very minimum. Tourism, food and unnecessary air transportation should be phased out. Infrastructure and local production in underpriviledged EU regions where these €800 million could help hightech production as well improve agrartechnology.
Please do not use “green” and “clean” related to aviation. It demonstrates the decay of the meaning of the green movement.
 EU Press Room: Research project for greener aviation takes off at Paris Air Show
23.06.2007 US cisgene French fryes trying to solve the acryamide issue 
Caius Rommens, working for the US potato leader J. R. Simplot  has created a new Russet Ranger potato variety.
He calls it a cisgene potato to distinguish from the transgene varieties of GM food. Cigenesis differs from the trangenic technique in that no alien gene is introduced in the plant. Some of its own genes are inverted so they silence their expression. Rommens inverted three genes of the Russet Ranger.
There are more than 50,000 genes in a potato. The scientists removed three of those genes and introduced reversed replicas that silence their activity.
One gene producing asparagin and two other genes which transform potato starch in sugar when stored frozen.
These peaces of the potato genome were inversely rewritten and reintroduced in the genome. These new genes have now a terminator activity, they block the code of the cell which is now unable to produce asparagine and sugar and less acrylamid can be formed when fried.
The reconfigured gene structure will be invisible to the consumer because the government does not require labels as do most countries in Europe.
Company officials stress that unfortunately the new potato is in a preliminary research stage. It will be five to 10 years before Simplot markets. 
Cisgenesis should not be treated as GMO 
According to Schouten, Krens and Jacobsen 2006 the European legislative framework on GMOs regards mutagenesis and the fusion of cells from sexually compatible plants as methods of genetic modification, the resulting GM plants are excluded from that framework by the GMO Directive (European Parliament, 2001).
The authors claim that the products of cisgenesis are more similar to plants derived by mutagenesis or traditional breeding methods, cisgenesis should also be excluded from GMO frameworks and regulated in the same way as traditional breeding.
The position of other organisations 
CSPI: Jaffe, of the Center for Science in the Public Interest calls for regulations and the need to make sure there are no food safety risks, and if there are health benefits, the Ceter could support that.
FDA: According to Alan Bennet from FDA in Portland, Oregon, Goovernment regulators would likely be a smaller obstacle. With all genetically modified foods, the agency examines the final product to ensure it does not differ in taste or health effects from what the customer expects. Our concern is not how it's produced, but what the end product is.
However, the side effects of the inversion of genes are unpredictable. Instead of waiting 5 to 10 years for the new potato to be put on market it would be wiser to change nutritional habits right now , for instance the consumer could be advised to accept healthy light yellow French fries (fried at 130°C instead of 180-230°C) which are not so crisp as the brown ones laden with acryalamid.
 Agbioworl: Jessy Harlan Alderman: Scientists Search for the Perfect Potato. The Oregonian , Jan 7,2007.
 Simplot: Bringing Earth´s Resources to Life
 Schouten, Henk J.; Krens, Frans A.; Jacobsen, Evert: Cisgenic plants are similar to traditionally bred plants International regulations for genetically modified organisms should be altered to exempt cisgenesis European Molecular Biology Organization , Vol 7, (8) 2006 doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400769
22.06.2007: Rapid post mortem tests to detect TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy) in small ruminants not safe. 
The situation of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) of small ruminants like goats and sheep in Europe is analysed by the EU Food Safety in its release “ new information about TSE in goats”. 
Evaluation of the validated TSE tests found that they do not perform equally toward atypical cases and that difference in performance result in under- or non recognition of various types of scrapie. Moreover, a new type of TSE (atypical scrapie cases/NOR98) not previously recognized in the EU, was detected in small ruminants.
Currently atypical/Nor98 has been detected in a large number of European countries and approximately constitutes 80% of test positive cases identified in EU.
New tests have to successfully pass all stages of a new evaluation process. New tests should detect classical scrapie, atypical scrapie and BSE in sheep and detection of preclinical cases and comply with criteria on limitations posed by analytical sensitivity in comparison with bioassay.
The criteria set higher standards than have previously been approved for validation of small ruminant post mortem TSE tests for classical scrapie and BSE as well as for atypical scrapie. Considering data available about abnormal PrP distribution in the three recognized small ruminants TSE forms (BSE, classical scrapie and atypical scrapie) the use of brainstem appears to be the best compromise for detection of all TSE agents in small ruminants. In consequence, officially confirmed (by CRL and NRL) positive/negative brainstem will be used for the evaluation of tests.
The BIOHAZ panel recommends that tests already approved for the detection of TSE in small ruminants should be required to participate in the new evaluation in order to confirm their robustness and their ability to fulfil the additional performance requirements (e.g. atypical cases and analytical sensitivity).
 EFSA: Opinion of the Scientific Panel BIOHAZ: Protocol for the evaluation of rapid post mortem tests to detect TSE in small ruminants.
 EFSA Food Safety from Farm to Fork: BSE/Scrapie- TSE in goats http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biosafety/bse/goats_index_en.htm
22.07.2007: Omega-3 Eggs claims deceive consumer 
The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) urged the FDA to stop seven egg producers from implying that their eggs can reduce the risk of heart disease. In fact, says CSPI, egg producers should not be making heart-healthy claims, because the FDA specifically prohibits such claims on eggs and other foods high in cholesterol or saturated fat.
Egg producers take advantage of consumers’ limited knowledge of the different types of omega-3s. While the FDA permits claims for a possible reduced risk of heart disease linked to two kinds of omega-3s, DHA and EPA, the agency does not allow such claims for other omega-3s. CSPI commissioned a lab test that found that less than half of the advertised 350 mg of omega-3s in a Land O Lakes egg came from EPA and DHA.
“The most beneficial omega-3 fatty acids come from fish, fish oil, and algae,” said CSPI senior staff attorney Ilene Heller. “Even if eggs had the ‘right’ kind of omega-3s, they still contain significant levels of saturated fat and cholesterol, which increase the risk of heart disease.”
Products named in the CSPI complaint include:
• Land O Lakes claims that “omega-3 All-Natural Eggs” are a “good source of heart-healthy nutrition” despite the fact that FDA has not defined the term “good source” for omega-3s and that the eggs contain too much saturated fat and cholesterol to meet FDA’s definition of healthy.
• Eggland’s Best uses unapproved nutrient content claims for omega-3s on its carton and on its Web site. In addition, the company claims that its eggs have 25 percent less saturated fat than regular eggs. But that difference is less than half a gram—an amount that the FDA considers trivial for purposes of nutrition labeling.
• Safeway Specialty 3 Eggs misleadingly boasts “100 mg of omega-3s” even though the FDA has not set standards for such omega-3 claims. In addition, the principal source of omega-3s in the hens’ diets is likely not a source that may be associated with heart benefits.
• Gold Circle Farms claims that its eggs contain “450 mg of omega-3s.” The claims are based on two eggs even though the official FDA serving size for eggs is one egg.
• The Country Hen illegally claims “the difference is an egg that is simply healthy” even though the product does not meet regulatory requirements for “healthy,” and also makes its claims based on two eggs.
• Full Spectrum Farms boasts that its product has “30 mg” of unspecified omega-3s even though one ordinary egg, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains 37 mg of omega-3s, 20 mg of which are DHA and EPA.
• Giving Nature asserts that the company feeds its hens flax seed which “has been known to hold high levels of DHA omega-3.” But, according to the Flax Council of Canada and others, the omega-3s that FDA considers healthful (DHA and EPA) are not found in plants such as flax seed.
 Center for Science in the Public Interest: Egg Producers Deceive Consumers, Violate Law with Bogus Omega-3 Claims
22.06.2007: EU rises the threshold of "GM Free" labelling causing indignation in UK 
Natural normal grown food is acute endangered to be contaminated by the genetic engineering escapades of a handful global enterprises. Governments bow their head to their lobby and rise the threshold labelling of contamination instead of combating the underlying cause which would be to phase out GM food.
EU agriculture ministers last week agreed that food accidentally contaminated with up to 0.9% genetically modified content could be labelled "GM free". But the Soil Association and Organic Farmers and Growers, which together certify more than 90% of the UK's organic food, today pledged to keep their own criteria at the current 0.1 per cent.
On 21 June 2007, a delegation representing 70 organic businesses, urged the Secretary of State for the Environment not to make organic consumers pay for GM contamination. The Government currently proposes to allow up to 0.9% GM in organic food without the GM companies being liable for this damage. This is despite the fact that in European law, 0.9% is not a general GM threshold, but rather a threshold below which accidental contamination does not have to be labelled.
The UK ognanic associations confirmed that they would maintain their current non-GM standards for organic food, at the effective minimum detectable level of 0.1% GM, whatever the Government decides.
During their consultation, the Government met with a number of GM companies, including AstraZeneca, BASF Plant Science, Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences, Du Pont (UK) Ltd, Monsanto UK Ltd, and Syngenta Ltd. Not one organic business was consulted directly, and this is the first meeting the Government has had with representatives of organic businesses.
 Organic consumers should not pay for GM contamination – representatives of 70 organic companies tell Miliband Press Release 06/21/2007
20.06.2007: Copper may reverse cardiac hypertrophy caused by high blood pressure  
A study on mice with unhealthy enlarged hearts found that the condition reversed itself with supplementation of copper.
The researchers hope this could also humans be applied in humans using 3 mg dosis/ day.The current recommended daily intake for humans, however, is only 0.9 mg/day. Although high, the dose was nevertheless below safe upper limits for copperthat were fed the equivalent of three times the amount of copper recommended for human health.
According to the list of copper-rich foods of the US Agricultural Research Service (ARS) some foods rich in copper which could help people with cardiac hypertrphy are: 
|Baking chocolate, bitter||2,00|
|Crustaceans, crab, blue, canned||1,18|
|Barley, pearled, raw||0,10|
|Beans, white, canned||0,80|
 Jiang, Youchun; Reynolds, Corey; Xiao, Chang; Feng, Wenke; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Rodriguez, Walter; Tyagi, Suresh C.; Eaton, John W.; Saari, Jack T. ; Kang Y. James: Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice J. Exp. Med. 2007 204: 657-666. doi:10.1084/jem.20061943.
 Bashyam, Hema: Heavy metal for a troubled heart. J. Exp. Med. 2007 204: 455.
 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17 Nutrient Lists
20.06.2007: New researche on snacks
Marie-Pierre St-Onge and colleagues 2007 in a study found that replacing low-fat and high-fat snacks with snacks rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and low in saturated and trans fatty acids improves cardiovascular health.
The authors found in their study that the reduction of LDL- and total cholesterol concentrations were greater with the low-fat and the high-PUFA diets than with the high-fat diet The high-PUFA diet tended to reduce triacylglycerol concentrations, and this change was greater than that with the low-fat and high-fat diets. In addition the PUFA diet was the only one that tended to reduce triacylglyerol concentrations. However this that low fat diets may lead to reduction in high density lipoprotein (HDL /good cholesterol), and increase triacylglycerol concentrations. Some high fat foods such as nuts and avocados are therefore considered as healthy.
The authors concluded that snack type affects cardiovascular health. Consuming snack chips rich in PUFA and low in saturated or trans fatty acids instead of high-saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid or low-fat snacks leads to improvements in lipid profiles concordant with reductions in cardiovascular disease risk.
According to the authors the consumption of snacks above balanced meals should not be promoted as healthy, but this research adds to the evidences that snacks, fast food and restaurant meals should be reformulated to reduce unhealthy trans fatty acids and to increase polyunsaturated fatty acids. Organisations like the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) are working hard on this issue
 St-Onge,Marie-Pierre; Aban, Inmaculada; Bosarge, Aubrey; Gower, Barbara; Hecker , Kari D.; Allison, David B.: Snack chips fried in corn oil alleviate cardiovascular disease risk factors when substituted for low-fat or high-fat snacks. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 85, No. 6, 1503-1510, June 2007
19.06.2007: Not enough nutritional evidence to recommend organic foods over other foods.
According to Claire Williamson 2007 writing in an article in the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture there are limited data claiming that organic foods are more nutritious than conventionally produced foods.
In this review no overall differences in nutritional profiles for food grown conventionally or organically were reported. Only few exceptions were found, such as organic potatoes and leafy organic vegetables which were richer sources of vitamin C than their conventionally grown vegetables.
No differences were found in nutrients of main concern in dairy products such as calcium, zinc, vitamin B2 or vitamin B12. Only in milk less sought-after nutrients like linoleic acids , vitamin E, beta- carotene and poyunsaturated fatty acids were found higher in organic milk. However these items are sourced from other foods.
The world market of certified organic foods is growing rapidly. Behind the marketing efforts of retailers international exporters a huge interest of the international business groups is flourishing. Transportation over long distances and even air freight is being considered by the certification boards.  
Avoiding pollution of the environment with pesticides and chemical fertilisers, using crop rotation and good animal husbandry to control pests and diseases are the basics of a sustainable method of agriculture. The primary goal is the protection of the environment. A side-product is the food which is harvested in such environment.
Buying organics grown far away you are doing the best for your supermarket corporation but its not better for your health or the environment than choosing cheaper conventional produces.
If you want to go organics look for small organic farmers, small organic stores which have their ware supplied by surrounding farms, and look for weekly markets of your town.
Ingredients: Organic products of the shelves of your supermarket often do not differ from conventional ones such as organic fruit yoghurt. It has the same addition of 10 per cent of sugar-glucose syrup increasing the risc of obesity and diabetes.
Organics is a philosophy of cohabitation of mankind and nature. On the other hand supermarket shelf ware organics is a genial marketing effort to boost business, the contact with the roots of organics are blurred.
Soil Association Standards dept: Airfreight consultation 
From: Karl Heinz Wilm
To: Soil Association Standards dept.
Subject: Airfreight consultation Shortens, 05.06.2007
I appeal to you to stay firm in banning airfreight from organics. Allowing airfreight destroys the foundation of the organic movement, adapting it to the supermarket logistics. This will undermine the confidence of the consumer on the producers and make certification watery.
Here are some of your arguments and my comment:
-Isolated initiatives like Tesco and Mark & Spencer: These initiatives are bound to specific produces and are not part of an all round organic label. Only clear commitment to guidelines bringing all products and all producers in one boat.
- Air freight has the highest global warming potential of any form of transport: It is opposed to the deepest principles of organic philosophy. Opening the door for niche products, the whole organic segment will be questionable.
- Air freight enables producers in some of the poorest regions of the world to supply high value fresh fruit and vegetables to Europe.: This is not true, as the poorest have no access to the high technical logistic of air traffic. Only the Australian lobby, specialised on air traffic to USA is interested to sell their surplus to Europe, after a sudden wave of US own produces.
- Empty shelves: Worse than empty shelves is the loss of confidence of the consumer. Airfreighting organics is a scandal.
1- If no ban of air freight is possible the declaration “ Transported by Air” in close proximity to the word ORGANIC should be compulsory.
2- But, a ban is indispensable.
3- The next certification renewal should withdraw the approval of the product.
You are doing a good job, and stay firm to the principles of the organic movement
Karl Heinz Wilm
 Williamson, Claire S.: Is organic food better for our health?; Nutrition Bulletin, June 2007, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 104-108
 Ourfood-News: 31.05.2007 UK food sector is the world leader in food health and environment movement, an example to be looked upon by the leaders of the G 8 meeting.
18.06.2007: Gellan film enhancing stability of vitamin C 
Paula Leona and Ana Rojas found that an edible film based on 1% gellan and glycerol in water enhanced the stability and non-enzymic browning resistance of vitamin C having an application as antioxidant in various formulations. Natural antioxidants like ascorbic acid are increasingly used in place of synthetic ones.
 Leona, Paula G. and Rojas, Ana M.: Gellan gum films as carriers of l-(+)-ascorbic acid. Food Research International (Elsevier). June 2007, Volume 40, Issue 5, Pages 565-575. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2006.10.021
17.06.2007: Biotechnology: EU Trade Commissioner needs GM food to increasing world trade 
The speech of Peter Mandelson on biotechnology on 14 June 2007 was hailed by the audience of industry delegates and widely distributed.
I think that the job of the EU Trade Commissioner is to promote trade. He must backup nuclear weapon exports, import toxics and dope as long cash flows. This is business, this is why his office exists. However, It is the job of science to avoid proliferation of premature developments on modified organism or other activities of global negative spin-offs.
Europe is one of the greatest exporter of manufactured foods because of the confidence on quality and safety of its products and its policy on safety from fork-to-table. This image is good selling argument for an involvement in international tasks.
Here are the highlights of the EU Trade Commissioner speech on GM safety:
- Mandelson strongly defended an open European approach to biotechnology and GM food which plays a crucial role in agriculture and agricultural trade both in Europe and the developing world. Europe's interests are not served by being outside a global market that is steadily working its way through the issues raised by GM food. However we should not sacrifice principles of life for the interests of a global market controlled by less than a handful corporates.
- He argued that Europe has the appropriate risk-management systems for ensuring that biotechnology is rigorously tested but that these systems can be badly undermined if politicians and risk-managers do not defend the science that underpins them. However, it is the duty of risk-manager to look after food safety on a science which is to young to be released to change genetic pool of the whole world in just a few years.
- He said that any blanket rejection of GMOs ignores the fact that genetically modified foods have played a key part in past revolutions in agricultural productivity and will be central to providing sufficient food and feed stocks for a growing population in the developing world.
However, any interference in the economy of developing countries introducing global technologies has brought destructive displacement of small peasants which are the huge part of the population of developing countries. Examples of this are soy plantation in Argentina, Brazil or the outcomes of the Green Revolution in India.
- Mandelson said that Europe may find it increasingly hard to source animal feed that is approved under EU rules – putting a heavy strain on the EU livestock sector.
However, this opens our eyes how far GM contamination is going. Against the absolute monopoly of GM leaded by soy and corn, the big ones of feed contaminating the whole food chain is why Europe must be strong to ensure a future safe world.
- Mandelson argues that the EU should take the lead in shaping a global system of clear rules that allow exporters and importers to trade GM crops and feed (and so many good things bringing more traffic, more exchange and more cash flow) in confidence. He identifies negotiations on the Codex Alimentarius, bringing the Biosafety Clearing House of the Cartagena Protocol to full operational status and the reinforcement of the WTO SPS Agreement as key priorities.
The Codex is doing a great job, so does WTO and SPS Agreement to promote global trade. However, science must rule safety concerns. Not everything is perfect in these young developing international Agreements.
 Peter Mandelson EU Trade Commissioner: Biotechnology and the EU European Biotechnology Info Day Bavarian Representation, Brussels, 14 June 2007
14.06.2007: Late sequelae of agent orange defoliant herbicide in Vietnam made by Monsanto and Dow 
The Vietnamese Association of Victims of Agent Orange/Dioxin (VAVA) will launch their appeal at a federal court opening on 18 June 2007 in New York against 37 US companies that produced Agent Orange, a poisonous defoliant that the US army showered forests and rice paddies with during its war against Vietnam.
An estimated 11 million gallons of Agent Orange were dumped on Vietnam from 1961 to 1971 by the US military and the US-backed South Vietnamese regime.
The herbicide has been discovered to contain the carcinogen dioxin – one of the most toxic compounds known to man. It has been linked to cancer and serious birth defects.
VAVA presented a claim against 37 companies who produced Agent Orange, among them being Dow Chemical and Monsanto, in January 2004.
The claim specifies that the production of dioxin and other toxic substances used as weapons by US military forces against Vietnam has a direct link with extreme health problems and deformities of three millions of people in this country.
In 2005, VAVA’s initial case was rejected as the court determined there were no legal grounds for the trial.
The US has compensated its own army veterans who have developed certain cancers since serving in Vietnam, but little has been done for the Vietnamese.
In 1999, 20,000 South Koreans filed a lawsuit in Korea and in January 2006, the Korean Appeals Court ordered Monsanto and Dow to pay $62 million in compensation to about 6,800 Koreans.
The Hai Bluhm, a Vietnamese person seeking asylum in Potsdam, Germany is heavily signed by agent orange. He is one of the witnesses which will be heard by the court. The appeal is launched against the chemical factories of the defoliant because the constitution of the united States of America does not allow in this case action lawsuit to be been filed against the US Government. 
 Thanhnien News: Public support raised for Agent Orange lawsuit
 Spiegel Online: Todesregen, Prozessflut und ein Tropfen Hoffnung. Marina Mai. 14.06.2007.
14.06.2007 Pre-storage treatment reduces scald losses on organic apple
Low-oxygen atmosphere for seven days at 20°C prior to cold storage extends shelf life of organic fruit and vegetable according to Edna Pesis. Only 10% of apples were lost due to scald after 8 month of cold storage. Pesis says that ware which had not been pre-storage treated was completely lost under the same condition.
According to the article of Pesis published in the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture and reported on in Chemistry & Industry, storage of avocados, tomatoes and other organic produce may profit from this technique.
Conventional produce can be treated with chemicals, but no artificial chemicals are used for organics during processing. Treatment of organic apples with a solution of the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) is being used for years to reduce scald. This treatment may now be substituted by the none-chemical pre-storage treatment of Pesis.
 Foodnavigator: Oxygen treatment found to extend shelf life. 11.06.2007
13.06.2007 Protein and vaccines from methane from the North Sea fields. 
The Norway company Norferm in Tiedbergodden expands its capacity 8 000 to 40 000 t/year of bioprotein using methane gas from Heidrun field in the Norwegian Sea as raw ware. 
The BioProtein from Norferm is produced by fermentation of methane, oxygen, ammonia and minerals together with methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus. The resulting product contains 70% of crude protein and can be used as feed for chicken, swine, pets an fish. 
The University of Bergen, together with Norferm developed the technology of the fermenter of methane. Other projects are running to bring Methylocuccus capsulatus to produce oral vaccines. 
Methane a greenhouse gas.
Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas that remains in the atmosphere for approximately 9-15 years. Methane is over 20 times more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide (CO2) over a 100-year period and is emitted from a variety of natural and human-influenced sources. Human-influenced sources include landfills, natural gas and petroleum systems, agricultural activities, coal mining, stationary and mobile combustion, wastewater treatment, and certain industrial process.
Methane is also a primary constituent of natural gas and an important energy source. As a result, efforts to prevent or utilize methane emissions can provide significant energy, economic and environmental benefits.
 Robert Winder: Methane to biomass. Cheistry and Industry 06 Septempmber 2004 Issue 17 p 19
 Norferm: BioProtein. A single cell protein from methane
 University of Bergen: Exploiting a gaseating bacteria
 US EPA: Methane
13.06.2007: Leptin in new UK baby food 
UK will launche a new infant formula with leptin intended to protect from obesity and diabetes into adulthood. Leptin is present in milk but not in infant formulas. Adding leptin could restore natural composition of baby food.
Researcher Claire J. Stocker and colleagues 2007 found that leptin supplements to rats early in life offers permanent protection against obesity and diabetes in adulthood. 
According to the researchers leptin's role in infancy hardwires the body's energy balance settings. They believe that the decision to be fat or thin may even be made before birth, during pregnancy. Offspring of leptin-treated mothers remain lean even when fed a fat-laden diet. The researchers want to extend this to the pet market to avoid diabetic and fat dogs and cats. 
Leptin is produced by the placenta. Leptin levels rise during pregnancy and fall at parturition. A supplementation of leptin during pregnacy is therefore not necessary 
Although leptin is a circulating signal that reduces appetite, in general, obese people have an unusually high circulating concentration of leptin. These people are said to be resistant to the effects of leptin, in much the same way that people with type 2 diabetes are resistant to the effect on insulin. Thus, obesity develops when people take in more energy than they use over a prolonged period of time, and this excess food intake is not driven by hunger signals, occurring in spite of the anti-appetite signals from circulating leptin. The high sustained concentrations of leptin from the enlarged fat stores result in the cells that respond to leptin becoming desensitized. 
 The Society of Chemical IndustryNew formula for fit future. Baby food offering lifetime protection against obesity could be in the supermarket soon, Lisa Melton reports. Chemistry & Industry magazin
Stocker, Claire J.; Wargent, Ed; O'Dowd, Jackeline; Cornick,Claire; Speakman, John R.; Arch, Jonathan R.S.; Cawthorne, Michael A.: Prevention of diet-induced obesity and impaired glucose
tolerance in rats following administration of leptin to their mothers. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00676.2006
 Zhao J, Townsend KL, Schulz LC, Kunz TH, Li C, Widmaier EP (2004). "Leptin receptor expression increases in placenta, but not hypothalamus, during gestation in Mus musculus and Myotis lucifugus". Placenta 25 (8-9): 712–22.
 Wikipedia, the free enzyclopedia: Leptin
12.06.2007: Detection of L and D amino acids to study modified composition of new GM plants. 
Miguel Herrero and colleagues 2007 presented a new technique detecting significant differences % D-aa values for the different conventional varieties (Aristis, Tietar, and PR33P66 maize).
The transgenic maize Tietar-Bt with the new inserted Cry1Ab transgene presented % D-aa values which were similar to conventional maize Trietar. According to the authors this indicates that, in these maize samples, no metabolic pathway were modified in Trietar-BT.
The method is based on changes of the “L” or “D” form of amino acid (the so called chiral amino acids). Such changes may affect nutritional quality and digestibility. The method combines micellar electrokinetic chromatography with a chiral selector and laser-induced fluorescence to investigate the prevalence of L- and D-amino acids.
The authors suggest this new method to be used as proof of substantial equivalence of GM maize and conventional plants.
 Herrero, Miguel; Ibanez, Elena; Martin-Alvarez, Pedro J.; Cifuentes, Alejandro: Analysis of Chiral Amino Acids in Conventional and Transgenic Maize Analytical Chemistry; 2007; ASAP Article; DOI: 10.1021/ac070454f
12.06.2007: China stops bio ethanol production from food and starts using Lignin and cellulose as raw material
Biofuels are currently manufactured from food crops including corn, wheat, sugar, cassava, sweet sorghum, and oilseeds.The Chinese government fears shortage of food in these items due to biofuel demand which could increase food prices and issued a moratorium on these sources.
China produces about one million tons of Ethanol annually from three million tons of corn. Non-food crops, such as cassava and drought-tolerant sweet sorghum will now have to be used for the production of bio-ethanol.
Due to the great demand, China imports cassava from Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia
Lignocellulose ethanol plant in China 
Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from almost any organic matter, including agricultural waste, grasses, sewage, sludge, switchgrass, plant stalks, trees and straw. Cellulose and lignin cannot be digested by humans, the production of cellulose does not compete with the production of food. Transforming them into ethanol using efficient and cost effective hemi(cellulase) enzymes or other processes might provide as much as 30% of the current fuel consumption in the US—and probably similar figures in other oil-importing regions like China or Europe.
There are two ways to produce ethanol from cellulose:
1.Cellulolysis processes which consist of hydrolysis on pretreated lignocellulosic materials followed by fermentation and distillation.
2.Gasification that transforms the linocellulosic raw material into gaseous carbon monoxide and hydrogen. They are then fed into a special kind of fermenter or to a catalyst bed.
They both include fermentation and distillation as final steps.
FoodNavigator: China blocks food for biofuel
 Wikipedia, the free enzyclopedia: Cellulosic ethanol
12.06.2007: Trans Fat Holdouts Remain in Supermarkets, Despite Labelling 
Though trans fat-labeling rules spurred many companies to remove most of the partially hydrogenated oil from most of their processed foods, hundreds of foods still contain the discredited,
heart-attack-inducing ingredient, according to a limited supermarket survey conducted by the nonprofit Center for Science in the Public Interest.
Since 2004, CSPI has been urging the FDA to prohibit the use of partially hydrogenated oils in food. Unfortunately, though, the agency that took ten long years just to include trans fat on food labels hasn’t taken action on CSPI’s petition. While the FDA rejected CSPI’s petition to require restaurants to disclose the presence of trans fat and still considers the ingredient “generally recognized as safe,” out, but those measures exempt packaged foods sold in their original wrappers.
Meanwhile The States of New York City; Philadelphia; Montgomery County, Maryland; and Brookline, Massachusetts working on their own require restaurants to phase out their use of partially hydrogenated oils
According to CSPI executive director Michael F. Jacobson everyone is so used to seeing “0g Trans Fat” claims on food labels that it’s tempting to think the problem is solved. While
labeling has been a great success, it clearly hasn’t been enough to get every company on board for every product.
The American Heart Association says Americans should consume no more than 2 grams of trans fat per day, which is about as much as someone would get from naturally occurring trans fat.
Alternatives to trans fatty acids 
Frying with soya oil which is not hydrogenated reduces the shelf life considerably because of the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids which are readily oxidised. Using rape seed oil also known as canola, solves this problem. Rape seed oil is similar to the Mediterranean olive oil. It has plenty of monounsaturated fatty acids which are less reactive with oxygen. Change from hydrogenated soy oil to rape seed oil or fractionated palmoil and reduction of desodorising temparature during refining of edible oil and fats solves the problem.
The phase out of trans- fatty acids in Europe was completed in just a few years. FDA, however does not move, while the government of States and many enterprises like Unilever banned trans-fatty acids.
The retailer chains are in the responsibility to look after food safety of the products they sell and should demand trans-fatty acid status of the produces they deliver.
The consumer should reject all products which are not labelled as trans-free.
The FDA Guide 
Trans fatty acids should be listed as "Trans fat" or "Trans" on a separate line under the listing of saturated fat in the nutrition label. Trans fat content must be expressed as grams per serving to the nearest 0.5-gram increment below 5 grams and to the nearest gram above 5 grams., the content, when declared, must be expressed as "0 g."
FDA issued a final rule on July 11, 2003 (68 FR 41434) to require food labels to bear the gram amount of trans fat Any product that is initially introduced into interstate commerce on or after January 1, 2006 must be labeled with trans fat. Sources of trans fat include partially hydrogenated oil and some animal-based foods. Examples of exemptions are discussed by the FDA. 
According to the CSPI labelling was a good thing, but the FDA should finish the job and begin a regulatory process that would phase out partially hydrogenated oils altogether, or limit their use to minuscule amounts.
 CSPI: Trans Fat Holdouts Remain in Supermarkets, Despite Labeling
 OurFood: Food What is it?: Deep frying oil and shortenings
 Food Labelling: Trans Fatty Acids in Nutrition Labelling, Nutrient Content Claims, and Health Claims Small Entity Compliance Guide. December 30, 2005
 Requesting an Extension to Use Existing Label Stock after the Trans Fat Labeling Effective Date of January 1, 2006
10.06.2007: Vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation reduces all-cancer risk in women 
Joan M. Lappe and colleagues in a study of supplementation of 1,400-1,500 mg calcium and 1,100 IU vitamin D3 over 4 years the calcium/vitamin D3 group experienced a 60 per cent decrease in their cancer risk compared to the group taking placebos, but did not change significantly for the group receiving only calcium.
The authors concluded that mproving calcium and vitamin D nutritional status substantially reduces all-cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
 Lappe, Joan M.; Travers-Gustafson, Dianne; Davies, K. Michael; Recker, Robert R.; and Heaney, Robert P.: Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. June 8, Volume 85, Issue 6, Pages 1586-1591
10.06.2007: Green Tea reduces colorectal cancer risk in women. 
Tea and its constituents have shown anticarcinogenic activities in in vitro and animal studies. Epidemiologic studies, however, have been inconsistent.
Green tea contains between 30 and 40 per cent of water-extractable polyphenols, such as epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epicatechin., while black tea contains between 3 and 10 per cent.
Gong Yang assessed green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk and rectal cancers.
The researchers found an inverse dose-response relationship between the amount of tea consumed and duration in years of lifetime tea consumption This study suggests that regular consumption of green tea may reduce colorectal cancer risk in women.
Comment of OurFood: Drinking green tea without sugar is delicious. Ice-green tea without sugar or sweetener is excellent to avoid thirst on a hot summer day. For those who cannot live without sweetness added orange juice fits the taste. Avoid these industrial ice-teas with plenty of sugar and fructose-glucose syrup caloric bombs . Green tea should always preferred to black tea. Enzymatic activity destroyed most of the black tea polyphenols which are still present in green tea.
Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tng and Zheng, Wei: Prospective Cohort Study of Green Tea Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. Volume 16, Pages 1219-1223, doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0097
10.06.2007: Obesity control reducing energy density of foods 
Julia Ello-Martin and colleagues 2007 assessed as reduction diet the reduction of fat compared with the reduction of fat added with higher intake of fruits and vegetables during 1 year.
For both groups no goals for energy or fat intake were assigned; the participants could eat ad libitum.
The low fat and high intake of fruits and vegetables group, had a lower dietary energy density,a higher weight loss (7,9 kg/1 y), and less hunger than did the low fat group (6,4 kg/1y) with variation of +- 0,9 kg for both.
The authors concluded that the reduction of dietary energy density, combining increased fruit and vegetable intakes with decreased fat intake, is an effective strategy for managing body weight.
Commentary of OurFood: Reducing fat in dairy products, convenience foods and fried products such as french fryies fish sticks, croissants, forget about oily dressings and sugar-glucose energy bars to sweeten your calories, adding fruits and vegetables to your menu is the right way.
Instead of roasting lean beef or chicken breast in your pan using plenty of oil, you can cook it using water and zero oil. Gourmet add some wine instead of water. If you add a tomato salad on vinegar you meet the Juilia Ello-Martin specifications.
 Ello-Martin, Julia A.; Roe, Liane S.; Ledikwe, Jenny H.; Beach, Amanda M. and Rolls, Barbara J.: Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets. Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, Jun 2007; 85: 1465 - 1477.
10.06.2007: Contaminants in food 
The European Commission noted on the 7. June 2007 what has been undertaken to reduce contaminants in food.
According to the definition adopted by the EU, contaminants are substances that have not been intentionally added to food. These substances may be present in food as a result of the various stages of its production, packaging, transport or holding. They also might result from environmental contamination.
Some contaminants have already studied by food safety authorities, such as mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fusarium-toxins, patulin), metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, inorganic tin), dioxins and PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 3-MCPD and nitrates.
Ongoing investigations are:
Acrylamide - The Commission will collect data concerning surveys of acrylamide made by member states over three years between 2007 and 2009. 
Organotins - chemicals which can be found in water systems due to their presence in paints as anti-biofouling agents e.g. used on the hulls of ships and marine apparatus. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has issued an opinion on the health risks to consumers associated with exposure to organotins in foodstuffs. Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) has recently adopted an opinion on the risks to health and the environment associated with the use of 4 organotin compounds. In this opinion food and non-food exposure routes were assessed. More informations are available at the EFSA opinion, SCOOP Report 
Furan - has been identified in a number of foodstuffs that undergo heat treatment such as canned and jarred foodstuffs. A report on provisional findings on furan in food has been compiled by EFSA.  EFSA is currently collecting more data on furan .e.g. on its mode of formation, levels in food and toxicity. 
Ethyl carbamate - a compound that can naturally occur in fermented foods and beverages. It often occurs in alcoholic beverages (in particular stone fruit brandies). Ethyl carbamate is formed by ethanol and certain precursors in the fruit mash under the influence of light during the distillation process. EFSA is currently collecting data on the presence of ethyl carbamate.
EU Commission, Food Safety from Farm to Fork: News Archive: Contaminants of food. 07.06.2007
 Commission Recommendation of 3 May 2007 on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food (notified under document number C(2007) 1873)
 EFSA opinion, SCOOP Report Assessment of the dietary exposure to organotin compounds of the population of the EU Member States
 EFSA Report of the CONTAM Panel on provisional findings on furan in food. 22 December 2004.
 Recommendations on the monitoring of the presence of furan in foodstuffs.
09.06.2007: Bitter apricot kernel warning 
The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment says that bitter apricot kernels can lead to poisoning. These kernels are being sold increasingly on the Internet. In some cases it is claimed that they can help to fight cancer. However, there is no scientific evidence to back this claim.  
According to the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessmenuite bitter apricot kernels have a high natural level of amygdalin. During digestion hydrocyanic acid is released from the glycoside which can lead to severe, acute poisoning. At high doses it can even prove fatal. Hence, bitter apricot kernels may involve health risks. Eating just a few kernels can already lead to the onset of acute poisoning symptoms. 
Consumers should not, therefore, eat more than one or two bitter apricot kernels a day or even none at all for precautionary reasons. Unsubstantiated health claims, which could encourage desperate sick people to buy them, are irresponsible. 
Amygdalin (called here vitamin B17)has been studied by FDA in USA and found useless to fight cancer.
The claim cancer cells have within them an enzyme which unlocks the poison in the amygdalin, and in this way the cancer cells are destroyed. Normal, healthy cells do not have this enzyme. Is not backed by any study. 
Acute cyanide intoxications may arise from eating apricot kernels, choke cherries, and other stone fruit kernels with high concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides. Inadequately prepared cassava, when constituting the major part of the diet, may be hazardous. Amygdalin is also present in some sorts of cassava 
 German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR: Bitter apricot kernels can lead to poisoning
 CEM Food.C. Ltd:
 Bertsche T, Schulz M; 2003. Amygdalin – ein neues altes Krebsmittel?, Pharmazeutische Zeitung.
 National Cancer Institute, USA, 2005.
 WHO: Hydrogen Cyanade and Cyanides: Human Health Aspects.
09.06.2007: Wheat-based glucose syrups including dextrose not of allergen concern 
Since wheat is relevant both as a source of epitopes known to induce coeliac disease and as a source of allergens triggering wheat allergy, it is appropriate to investigate wheat products, namely wheat starch hydrolysates, for their potential to induce coeliac disease or trigger wheat allergy.
The Association des Amidonneries de Cereales de l´Union Europeenne AAC provides information on wheat starch hydrolysates, particularly concerning the potential effects of wheat-based glucose syrups including dextrose in coeliac disease and wheat allergy. The history of safe use of wheat-based glucose syrups including dextrose is claimed based on the safe use of wheat starch-based gluten-free diet in coeliac disease. .
Wheat-based glucose syrups including dextrose may contain low levels of proteins and peptides. It is not known at which levels of intake glucose syrups including dextrose would cause allergic reactions in wheat-allergic individuals. Nevertheless, taking into account all the scientific information provided and in particular the levels of wheat proteins reported in glucose syrups including dextrose, the Panel considers that it is not very likely that this product will trigger a severe allergic reaction in susceptible individuals.
For coeliac disease, assessment of the evidence provided including a new clinical study indicates that wheat-based glucose syrup is unlikely to cause an adverse reaction in individuals with coeliac disease provided that the (provisional) value of gluten considered by Codex Alimentarius for foods rendered gluten-free is not exceeded.
The Codex Standard for Gluten-Free Foods (Codex Stan 118-1983) specifies that the nitrogen content of food ingredients derived from gluten containing cereals may not exceed 0.05 g per 100 g on a dry basis (or 0.31 % protein/ds, Nx6.25), when they are used in a gluten-free food. 
 EFSA: Opinion of the NDA Panel related to a notification from AAC on wheat-based glucose syrups including dextrose pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC. 6.6.2007.
 Codex Stan 118 Standard for Gulte-Free Foods 1983
09.06.2007: D-apha tocopherols, phytosterols and phytosterol esters derived from soybean oil not of allergen concern  
Soy is a common dietary constituent and allergic reactions to soy proteins are well described. Soy allergy prevalence studies are lacking, estimated prevalences are about 0.5% in the general population with about 3-6% of allergic children being allergic to soy proteins. Clinical reactions are similar to those observed with other major food allergens, such as milk, egg or peanut and include systemic anaphylaxis.
The ADM and Cargill asked for an exemption of allergy warning for natural mixed tocopherols (vitamin E, E306) and a range of D-alpha tocopherols acetate and succinate derived from vegetable oil (soybean oil). Natural mixed tocopherols are mainly used as antioxidants in fatty foods at a concentration of about 50 mg/kg (referring to the fat fraction of the specific food). Natural mixed tocopherols are also used as dietary supplements.
The application covers phytosterol esters produced from vegetable oil (soybean oil). Phytosterol esters are currently commercially available in selected foods in several EU countries. The EU regulations limit exposure to a maximum of 3 grams per day of phytosterols through labelling requirements and maximum concentrations in certain food categories in order to avoid intakes above the recommended limits from multiple sources of intake. Plant sterols under consideration are derived from soybean oil deodorised distillates.
Considering the information provided by the applicant regarding the starting material, the subsequent production process, and the demonstration of low residual protein content, the Panel of the European Food Safety Authority considers that it is unlikely that natural mixed tocopherol/D-alpha tocopherols from soybean sources and vegetable oils derived phytosterols and phytosterol esters from soybean sources will trigger a severe allergic reaction in susceptible individuals.
The mixed tocopherols from soybean will therefore exempted from labelling of allergy warning
 EFSA: Opinion of the NDA Panel related to a notification from Cognis, ADM and Cargill on natural mixed tocopherols (E306), natural D-alpha tocopherol, natural D-alpha tocopherol acetate and natural D-alpha tocopherol succinate from soybean sources pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC. 6.6.2007
 EFSA: Opinion of the NDA Panel related to a notification from Cognis, ADM and Cargill on vegetable oils-derived phytosterols and phytosterol esters from soybean sources pursuant to Article 6 paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC. 6.6.2007
09.06.2007: Mustard seed oil (allyl isothiocyanate) not exempted from labelling as allergen 
Mustard and products thereof are included in the list of the Annex IIIa of the Directive 2003/89/EC .
Manufacturing process of mustard oil
Mustard seed from Brassica juncea are ground, tap water is added and the slurry is incubated at 50°C for 30 minutes. The allyl isothiocyanate is released from its precursor by the enzyme myrosinase. The oil is obtained by steam distillation under reduced pressure. The mustard oil is separated from water by centrifugation and dried with sodium sulphate and filtered.
Allergic reactions of mustard
Mustard is known to trigger allergic reactions or intolerances in sensitive individuals and was therefore included in this list and must be labelled..
International Flavours & Fragrances (IFF) requested the European Commission exempt mustard oil from labelling European Food Safety Authority to evaluate the scientific data and came to the following conclusion:
Arguments of IFF regarding safety of mustard seed oil
IFF claims that mustard seed oil is not likely to trigger adverse reactions on the basis of two arguments: 1) the typical low levels of mustard oil in foods, and 2) the in vitro demonstration that proteins are not present in amounts higher than 1.5 microg/g in five samples of mustard seed oil analysed with an ELISA test developed by the applicant.
The applicant did not take into account the known toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate and its role in causing allergic contact dermatitis, or the possibility that proteins not detectable with the ELISA test could cause an IgE-mediated reaction (Lerbaek et al., 2004; Kohl and Frosch, 1990).
The main volatile component of mustard seed oil is allyl isothiocyanate (97-100%). which has been classified as toxic by inhalation, in contact with the skin and if swallowed, and irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
Allergic reactions to mustard, including severe anaphylactic reactions, are well documented in
clinical and laboratory studies. Mustard allergy may account for 1-7% of all food allergies with
Mustard allergens are resistant to heat and to enzymatic degradation, and therefore are not markedly affected by food processing. The major mustard allergens identified are Sin a 1, belonging to the 2S
albumin family, and Bra j 1, also from the 2S albumin family, with a MW . A new major allergen in mustard seeds has been recently isolated and identified, an 11S globulin called Sin a 2 with a MW of 51 kDa (Palomares et al., 2005), but not all mustard allergens and their occurrence in different species are known.  
In addition, allyl isothiocyanate is a major skin-sensitizing agent (non IgE-mediated mechanism),
Mustard protein allergic individuals may react to the protein content of the oil. Individuals sensitised to the skin-sensitising component allyl isothiocyanate may react to oil even in the absence of mustard proteins (Lerbaek, 2004).
Taking account of the potential allergen content and well documented clinical allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to mustard (NDA, 2004a), it is appropriate for the Panel to assess the likelihood that mustard seed oil may cause an allergic reaction in mustard-allergic individuals.
Mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) will therefore not be exempted from labelling as allergen.
 Opinion of the Scientific Panel NDA related to a notification from IFF on mustard seed oil pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC.
 Directive 2003/89/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 November 2003 amending Directive 2000/13/EC as regards indication of the ingredients present in foodstuffs.
 NDA (Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) (2004a). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission relating to the evaluation of allergenic foods for labelling purposes. The EFSA Journal 32, 1-197.
 NDA (Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) (2004b). Opinion of the NDA Panel related to a notification from IFF on mustard seed oil pursuant to Article 6 paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC. The EFSA Journal 157, 1-6.
08.06.2007: Calcium supplements and excessive consumption of dairy products may increase the risk of prostate cancer in smokers, according to a study related to the ATBC study 
Calcium is reported to be the biggest seller supplement claiming that high dietary intakes of calcium and dairy products reduce prostate cancer risk.
Mitrou and colleagues 2007 in a study concerning dietary intakes of calcium and dairy products in relation to risk of prostate cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Cancer Prevention Study in smokers, found that calcium intake of more than 2,000 mg/day was associated with a marked increase in prostate cancer risk. Total dairy intake was also positively associated with risk of prostate cancer, but eliminating calcium from the data no risk of prostate cancer was found being calcium the pro-cancer agent of dairy products.
According to the authors intake of calcium or some related component contained in dairy foods is associated with increased prostate cancer risk.
 Mitrou, Panagiota N.; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Leitzmann, Michael F.: A prospective study of dietary calcium, dairy products and prostate cancer risk (Finland). International Journal of Cancer. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.22553 Published Online: 2 Feb 2007 1 June 2007, Volume120, Issue 11, Pages: 2466-2473
08.06.2007: Desert Locust 
Yemen is facing its worst Desert Locust outbreak since 1993, FAO warned on 6 June 2007. An intensive survey and aerial control campaign using helicopters needs to be mounted to avoid massive locust infestations and serious damage to food crops.
If locust infestations are not controlled in time, agricultural crops in Wadi Hadhramaut and other areas including the Sana’a highlands will be at risk
Locusts are migratory grasshoppers that often travel in vast swarms. A Desert Locust lives about three to five months. The life cycle comprises three stages: egg hopper and adult.
Eggs hatch in about two weeks, hoppers develop in five to six stages over a period of about 30-40 days, and adults can mature within three weeks. Swarms can travel from 5 to 130 kilometres or more in a day with the wind.
A Desert Locust adult can consume roughly its own weight in fresh food per day -- about two grams. A very small part of an average swarm eats the same amount of food in one day as about 500 people.
The Desert Locust is a difficult pest to control. Early warning and preventive control is the strategy adopted by locust affected countries in Africa and Asia to try to stop locust plagues from developing and spreading.FAOsDesert Locust Information Service (DLIS) in Rome, Italy monitors the weather, ecological conditions and the locust situation on a daily basis.Results and warnings are available on the FAOs Locust Watch web site. FAO also provides information.
An ecological method to control Desert Locust is with natural enemies. These include predatory anand parasitic wasps and flies, predatory beetle larvae, birds and reptiles, but are not sufficient to control great swarms Another old African method is by putting poisonous or aromatic plants next to the crop they are trying to protect.
At present the primary method of controlling desert locust infestations is with organophosphate insecticides applied in small concentrated doses by vehicle-mounted and aerial sprayers. The insecticide must be applied directly to the insect.
Biopesticides include fungi, bacteria, neem extract and pheromones. The effectiveness of many biopesticides equals that of conventional chemical pesticides. They are usually harmless to other creatures and the environment.
Biological control 
A biological control product is Green Muscle. It is based on a naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus which is a fungus which infects fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum This fungus infects many groups of insects. It is harmless to humans and other mammals and birds. It is recommended for use mainly against hoppers, the wingless early stages of locusts. it allows the natural enemies of locusts and grasshoppers to continue their beneficial work. Biopesticides are also safer to use in environmentally sensitive areas such as national parks or near rivers and other water bodies.
Green Muscle was developed under the LUBILOSA project Pathogens have the advantage that they can be produced in artificial culture in large quantities and be used with ordinary spraying equipment. The fungal spores are sprayed in oil. Oil-based formulations allow the application of fungal spores under dry conditions such as found in deserts.
Most insects living near the soil have evolved natural defenses against entomopathogenic fungi like M. anisopliae. This fungus is therefore locked in an evolutionary battle to overcome these defenses, which has led to a large number of strains that are adapted to certain groups of insects. Some strains are so specific that they have attained variety status, like Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, which almost exclusively infects grasshoppers.
The use of Metarhizium anisopliaein the control of malaria mosquitos coating mosquito nets or cotton sheets attached to the wall with them.is under investigation. 
 Yemen is facing worst locust outbreak in nearly 15 years
 Wikipedia, the free enzyclopedia: Desert locust
 Wikipedia, the free enzyclopedia: Metarhizium anisopliae
07.06.2007: Heptachlor in feed with fishmeal
According to the EFSA Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain heptachlor was commercially introduced as a non-systemic contact insecticide in 1945. It was also a major constituent (about 10 %) of technical chlordane. Heptachlor was used for agricultural purposes, soil and seed treatment, wood protection and termite- and household insect control. It has been banned for use in the European Union since 1984 and in most other countries worldwide because of the persistency in the environment of the two break-down products heptachlor epoxide and photoheptachlor.
All these compounds are lipophilic and particularly heptachlor epoxide and photoheptachlor tend to accumulate in the food chain.
Heptachlor shows moderate acute toxicity and heptachlor epoxide and photoheptachlor are more toxic than heptachlor. In mammals, the main target organs are the nervous system and the liver, but also the reproductive and the immune system are affected. Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide cause liver tumours in mice, but are not genotoxic. Heptachlor is classified by IARC as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). Heptachlor is moderately or highly toxic to fish exposed via water, but no data from oral studies have been found.
Amongst the species studied, the domestic hen is the most sensitive species and egg production and hatchability are the critical endpoints. Total heptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide) is not frequently found in feed commodities. When present, it is mostly in fish derived products and only very infrequently in feed materials of plant origin. Heptachlor epoxide is the predominant contaminant.
Human exposure to heptachlor
The present dietary exposure of the adult population to total heptachlor is below 1 ng/kg b.w. per day, which is two to three orders of magnitude below the tolerable daily intake of 0.0001 mg/kg b.w. as established by WHO in 2006.
To reduce human exposure to heptachlor Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain recommends to increase surveillance of feed :
- the Besides heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, the analyses of feed samples, especially of marine origin, should also include the determination of photoheptachlor.
- In the clean-up of samples, treatment with sulfuric acid must be avoided in order to prevent the decomposition of the analytes.
- Inter-comparisons performed on biological samples revealed large discrepancies in the performance of laboratories, indicating scope for improvement of the analytical methods.
- Toxicity and kinetic studies in fish exposed to heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide via the diet are lacking and should be conducted.
- The Members States are requested by the Commission to report the results of their monitoring programmes on undesirable substances in animal feed.
- Special attention should be paid to the control of feed materials coming from areas of the world where heptachlor has recently been or still is used.
 EFSA: Opinion of the Scientific Panel CONTAM related heptachlor as an undesirable substance in animal feed. Published 5 June 2007
07.06.2007: Bioavailability and food safety of L pidolic acid salts 
According to the Scientific Panel AFC of the European Food Safety Authority, the bioavailability of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc are absorbed from their L-pidolic acid salts is comparable to that from other water-soluble and dissociable salts permitted to be used in food supplements and foods intended for particular nutritional uses.
The use of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc L-pidolic acid salts as source of these minerals for nutritional purposes to food supplements is of no safety concern at the maximum use levels of L-pidolic acid of 3 g/day.
 Opinion of the Scientific Panel AFC related to Calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc L-pidolate as sources for calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc added for nutritional purposes to food supplements and to foods intended for particular nutritional uses.
07.06.2007: Vaccination against avian influenza of H5 and H7 subtypes in domestic poultry and captive birds 
Control measures of the HPAI strain of H5N1 are based on eradication of infected flocks, but increasingly more countries supplement these measures by the use of vaccination which is becoming important to control and prevent the propagation of the disease.
The opinion of the European Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare is intended to support the Commission in the further developments of a vaccination policy and was adopted on 11 May 2007.
According to this opinion, the current EU authorised AI vaccines for poultry such as chickens and ducks meet the relevant quality standards and are thus, safe and effective to be used. However, for other poultry and captive bird species the level of effectiveness of current AI vaccination is not sufficiently known and therefore additional data on the immunogenicity and effectiveness of current and future AI vaccines should be generated.
In general, the use of AI vaccines in poultry should be defined in advance dependant on the epidemiological situation, geographical area and overall risk perception as a preventive, emergency or in endemic situations.
Vaccination may also reduce transmission of AI virus amongst captive and wild birds, having also major benefits for animal welfare as vaccination will prevent them from contracting the disease, death and from being culled during eradication measures.
Silent spread of AI viruses can occur after vaccination, and therefore serological monitoring with
DIVA based strategies will be required to detect AI virus transmission after vaccination (shedding of the virus without presenting symptoms of the disease).
Vaccination programmes using vaccines authorised by the competent authority may reduce the potential for human and other mammalian cases of HPAI, where the disease may become endemic. The use of EU authorised vaccines per se is recommended because is safe and has no negative effect on poultry products for consumers.
On the evaluation of laboratory testing methods for surveillance of vaccinated flocks (in particular DIVA strategy), it is concluded that to date only conventional inactivated and recombinant live-vectored vaccines are available for use and can be coupled with a suitable companion diagnostic test.
An intrinsic problem of the DIVA principle is that infections with all AI subtypes (including non H5 and H7) may interfere.
The "DIVA" (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) a control strategy for avian influenza infections in poultry is based on the use of an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine containing the same haemagglutinin (H) subtype as the challenge virus, but a different neuraminidase (N). 
The "ad hoc" serological test based on the detection of specific anti-N1 antibodies. "DIVA" control strategy may represent a tool for the control of avian influenza infections in poultry to differentiate between vaccinated and naturally infected birds. 
 Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related with the vaccination against avian influenza of H5 and H7 subtypes in domestic poultry and captive birds. Published 6 June 2007.
 Capua, I.; Terregino, C.; Cattoli, G.; Mutinelli, F.; Rodrigues, J.F.: Development of a DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy using a vaccine containing a heterologous neuraminidase for the control of avian influenza. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids
06.06.2007: Folic acid increases the risk of some types of tumours 
Bernard Cole and colleagues 2007 found in a study that folate, when administered as folic acid for up to six years, does not decrease the risk of adenoma formation in the large intestine among individuals with previously removed adenomas.
Another study by Schernhammer and colleagues 2007 (See www.ourfoo-news.com 03.06.2007: Supplements with vitamin B may be harmful) came to similar conclusion in relation to pancreatic cancer. 
In the study of Cole participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 mg/day of folic acid or placebo and to receive aspirin or placebo and were then examined three and six or eight years later.
The researchers concluded that folic acid at 1 mg/d does not reduce colorectal adenoma risk. Further research is needed to investigate the possibility that folic acid supplementation might increase the risk of colorectal neoplasia.
Cornelia Ulrich and John Potter in an editorial said that folic acid promoted growth of carcinogenic lesions and calls of health professionals to rely carefully on multiagent chemoprevention and not to forget diet. 
The study of Schernhammer and the study of Cole may be a warning for excessive consumption of supplementation of the vitamin B group. Both studies call for more studies.
Mandatory fortification of certain foods with folic acid in the US and Canada were introduced in 1998 to reduce the incidence of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects.
Andrew Shao US dietary supplements industry association, the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) says that the benefits of folic acid are well-documented, particularly in the area of reducing the risk of neural tube birth defect. There is also promising scientific evidence for folic acid in reducing the risk of congenital cardiovascular defects, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. 
 Cole, B.; Baron, J.; Sandler, R.; Haile, R.; Ahnen, D.; Bresalier,R.; McKeown-Eyssen, G.; Summers, R.; Rothstein, R.; Burke, C.; Snover,D.; Church, T.; Allen, J.; Robertson, D.; Beck, G.; Bond, J.; Byers, T.; Mandel, J.; Mott, L.; Pearson, L.; Barry, E.; Rees, J.; Marcon, N.; Saibil, F.; Magne Ueland, P.; Greenberg, E.: Folic Acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 6 June 2007, Volume 297, Issue 21, Pages 2351-2359
 Schernhammer. Study on folate and pancreatic cancer
 Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Potter, John D.: Folate and Cancer - Timing is everything. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 6 June 2007, Volume 297, Issue 21, Pages 2408-2409
 CRN Emphasizes Importance of Folic Acid Benefits
06.06.2007: Antimicrobial drug-resistant Escherichia coli from humans and poultry products
According to Johnson and colleagues 2007 the food supply, including poultry products, may transmit antimicrobial drug-resistant Escherichia coli to humans. Drug-resistant human isolates from US population were phylogenetic and virulence gene profile similar to poultry isolates, and drug-susceptible and drug-resistant poultry isolates were largely indistinguishable.
The authors concluded that human-source drug-resistant fecal E. coli isolates more likely originated in poultry than in humans, whereas drug-resistant poultry isolates likely derive from drug-susceptible poultry isolates. However, avoidance of poultry consumption may not reliably provide personal protection.
 Johnson JR, Sannes MR, Croy C, Johnston B, Clabots C, Kuskowski MA, et al.: Antimicrobial drug-resistant Escherichia coli from humans and poultry products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002-2004. Emerg Infect Dis . 2007 Jun 6.
06.06.2007 Acidification of the North sea induced by atmospheric CO2 
Blackford and Gilbert 2007 describe a coupled carbonate system–marine ecosystem–hydrodynamic model. According to the researchers the biological activity in the benthic, the region near the ground, as well as pelagic, the deep water, is an important factor in this variability.
The acidification of the region due to increased fluxes of atmospheric CO2 into the marine system is calculated and shown to exceed, on average, 0.1 pH units over the next 50 years and result in a total acidification of 0.5 pH units below pre-industrial levels at atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 1000 ppm.
The potential for measurable changes in biogeochemistry are demonstrated by simulating the observed inhibition of pelagic nitrification with decreasing pH.
Scientists believe that further decreased pH of the North Sea water will destroy corals and biological system of the coastal and deeper regions.
 Blackford, J.C.; Gilbert, F.J.: pH variability and CO2 induced acidification in the North Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, Vol 64 Jan 2007 ppg 229-241
06.06.2007: Human Alveolar Echinococcosis 
According to Schweiger and colleagues 2007 human alveolar echinococcosis, a hepatic disorder that resembles liver cancer, is a highly aggressive and lethal zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis Humans and intermediate host animals acquire the infection by ingesting E. multilocularis eggs in contaminated food or water or by having close physical contact with infected foxes, dogs, or host faeces.
Annual incidence of human alveolar echinococcis increased recently in zwitzerland.with fox population highly increasing. The authors warn from an emerging epidemic of AE. Future trends will depend on the intensity of present and future contamination of the environment with E. multilocularis eggs as well as on the number of susceptible persons exposed to the parasite.
Increasing fox population has increased the infection pressure for a large part of the human population such as coyotes in the United States and Canada, as suitable definitive host of E. multilocularis have become established in suburban areas with moderate to dense human populations, and other canids such as domestic dogs as definitive hosts.
The authors conclude that public health authorities in echinococcosis-endemic areas should establish coordinated systems of continuous surveillance and risk assessment, combined with measures to reduce illness and death from AE in human populations They suggest control strategies,such as deworming of foxes and other wild canids by using anthelminthic baiting. target suburban areas that have high human and wild canid population densities.
 Schweiger A, Ammann RW, Candinas D, Clavien P-A, Eckert J, Gottstein B, et al. Human alveolar echinococcosis after fox population increase, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Jun 2007
06.06.2007: The role of meat and bone meal (MBM) in the epidemiology of BSE 
Mathilde Paul and colleagues 2007 studied the role of meat and bone meal (MBM), animal fat and dicalcium phosphate (DCP) after the feed ban on the risk for BSE epidemics.
In France, meat-and-bone meal (MBM) has been banned from cattle feed since July 30, 1990. However, through January 1, 2007, 957 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have been detected in cattle born after the ban.
Meat bone meal (MBM)
According to the authors the source of infection in cattle born after the MBM ban still involves MBM. The BSE agent may have entered cattle feed by cross-contamination with feed for monogastric species (pigs and poultry) in which MBM was still authorized until November 2000. Cross-contamination could have occurred within factories, during feed delivery to the farm, or on mixed farms that have cattle and pigs or poultry. The authors raise the question of effectiveness of the ban that was initially restricted to bovines and belatedly extended to other species to reduce cross-contamination.
The role of MBM as a source of BSE after the ban of MBM for cattle is well documented through cross-contamination in feed factories. The authors found that the total ban of MBM for farm animals in November 2000 was essential for controlling the spread of BSE.
Other animal by products
Animal dicalcium phosphate (DCP)
According to Paul and colleagues, together with other studies say that the implication of animal DCP as a source of BSE, if it existed, should have been marginal.
In contrast, a risk analysis by the European Food Safety Agency  considers the potential role of animal DCP in cattle infection as to be of the same order of magnitude as the residual risk from cross-contamination with MBM.
Animal fat in milk replacers
This study cannot exclude a minor effect of animal fat in milk replacers because of the solubility of prions and the possible contamination with protein impurities by contact with other infectious materials at the slaughterhouse. Animal fat is incorporated in cattle feed in milk replacer and in proprietary concentrates.
The authors point to the fact that in current context of the decreasing epidemic, economic pressure is increasing to release the ban of MBM in feed for monogastric species.
 Paul, Mathilde; Abrial, David; Jarrige, Nathalie; Rican, Stéphane;Garrido, Myriam; Calavas, Didier; Ducrot Christian:Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Spatial Analysis of the Feed Industry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 13, Number 6–June 2007
 Opinion of the Scientific Panel BIOHAZ on the "Quantitative assessment of the residual BSE risk posed by di-calcium phosphate (DCP) and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) from bovine bones used as an animal feed additive or as fertiliser". 16. March 2006
05.06.2007: Strategies to reduce person-to-person transmission during epidemics
Seto and colleagues 2007 studied the spinach Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157) outbreak in the United States in 2006 with 173 cases and one death.
During the spread of the disease the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration advised consumers not to eat spinach as the primary strategy for protecting against foodborne transmission of E. coli O157. No warnings, however, were issued regarding the prevention of person-to-person (secondary) transmission.
The authors assume that a combination of possible intervention strategies to interrupt secondary transmission would have a range of possible levels of effectiveness in epidemics like this. These strategies would include strongly recommending handwashing, avoiding contact with persons with diarrhea, meticulously preparing food, and avoiding work or school when ill with any gastrointestinal sign or symptom.
The researchers found in this study that an intervention such as a campaign to encourage handwashing and isolation of persons with diarrhea can substantially reduce secondary transmission. Even if a campaign were initiated relatively late in the outbreak, the number of cases would be reduced. Such advice was not a focus of the public health messages disseminated for the 2006 E. coli O157 outbreak. The interruption of secondary transmission might have had a useful role as an additional tool in managing this outbreak.
Public Health Implications
Public health strategies for preventing secondary transmission could include public media campaigns reminding the population of the importance of handwashing, avoiding contact with feces, minimizing nonessential contact with persons with diarrhea, meticulous care when preparing and consuming food, and staying at home from work or school when having any diarrhea during the outbreak period. Messages for all of these strategies can be delivered inexpensively to large or targeted populations through a variety of media (television, radio, print, Internet).
The authors conclude that health officials should consider rapidly delivering widespread public health messages with specific advice on how to interrupt secondary transmission of E. coli O157. Such an intervention, even if only modestly successful, could meaningfully reduce the number of cases.
 Seto EYW, Soller JA, Colford JM Jr. Strategies to reduce person-to-person transmission during widespread Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2007 Jun.
05.06.2007: Report on Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in north-western Europe updated in June 2007. 
Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by the BTV-serotype 8 (BTV-8) It affects domestic and wild ruminants, particularly certain breeds of sheep. It is a severe clinical disease, including mortality which rapidly spread in north-western Europe in 2006 . It affected cattle and sheep holdings in Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg, and The Netherlands.
The main findings reported by the EFSA bluetongue working group
Statistical modelling showed that the initial infection occurred in the area close to Maastricht.
The source of the introduction of BTV-8 could not be identified and the exact origin and route of the introduction of BTV-8 thus far remains unknown. However, the absence of legal import of ruminants from outside the EU into the Area of First Infection and the absence of BTV-8 from southern Europe suggest that the introduction of the BTV-8 infection into north-western Europe is likely to have occurred via a other than through import of infected ruminants.
Specifically, the potential for Culicoides to be imported along with or independently of the import of animals, plants or other ‘materials’ merits further study.
Sheep flocks should be monitored by a system based on clinical signs, as PCR in affected sheep is often negative.
Cattle monitoring system based on serological surveillance is being recommended.
Culicoides as a vector of BTV
The BTV-8 virus was found to be present in vectors (Culicoides species) which are endemic to north-western Europe. C. imicola, which is thought to be responsible for at least 90% of BTV transmission in the Mediterranean Basin, was not found in the affected region. Indigenous Culicoides found to be PCR-positive were C. dewulfi (a species breeding exclusively in the dung of cattle and horses) and C. obsoletus / C. scoticus.
In all likelihood this persistent activity of adult Culicoides owes much to the mild temperatures that have continued to prevail across northern Europe during the winter of 2006/2007.
Local spread was modelled and found to occur at a rate of about 2 km per day or approximately 15 km per week and equals the flight distances covered by Culicoides.
Wind may affect spread over long distances. In particular, the density of the observed wind events contributed, at least in part, to explaining the spread of BTV
The report concludes that changes in climatic conditions coupled with increased worldwide traffic might increase the risk in the appearance and the establishment of diseases in parts of Europe that were thus far exotic to those regions.
 European Food Safety Authority: Report on Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in north-western Europe.
05.06.2007: Greater potential of CWD-infected deer than elk to transmit the disease to other species 
Brent L. Race and colleagues 2007 studied the potential for cross-species transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk. According to he researchers CWD prevalence in wild elk is much lower than its prevalence in wild deer. The researchers found that the quantification of prion protein from tonsil and retropharyngeal lymph nodes showed much higher levels of PrPres in deer than in elk, suggesting that CWD-infected deer may be more likely than elk to transmit the disease to other cervids and have a greater potential to transmit CWD to noncervids.
The high presence of PrPres in deer lymphoid tissues suggest that infectivity might also be present in other peripheral tissues such as intestine, kidney, or salivary glands, which could possibly lead to excretion or secretion of infectivity in faeces, urine, or saliva. in confined settings, where animal-to-animal contact increases.
CWD transmission to humans
Earlier studies have not shown any evidence for transmission of CWD to humans. CWD has been transmitted to cattle by intracerebral but not by oral inoculation, and no reports have found that co-pasturing of CWD-infected deer or elk with cattle has resulted in transmission. Raymond and colleagues 2000  found in vitro assays designed to test the susceptibility of humans or cattle to CWD suggested a very low probability of transmission to humans. Raymond suggests that there might be a barrier at the molecular level that should limit the susceptibility of non-cervid species to CWD.
Sheep might cross CWD species barrier
Race and colleagues suggest that among livestock, sheep might be a possible target for CWD infection in appropriate situations such as co-pasturing. Also, a CWD agent from putatively infected sheep could have a host range not usually associated with CWD and might cross species barriers more readily than CWD from cervids. Thus, if CWD continues to expand in deer and elk populations, the possibility of transmission to noncervid species will require continued surveillance.
 Race, Brent L.; Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Ward, Anne; Jewell, Jean; Miller, Michael W. Williams, Elizabeth S.; Chesebro, Bruce; Race, Richard E. :Levels of Abnormal Prion Protein in Deer and Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Volume 13, Number 6-June 2007
 Raymond GJ, Bossers A, Raymond LD, O'Rourke KI, McHolland LE, Bryant PK 3rd, et al.: Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease. EMBO J. 2000 Sep 1;19(17):4425-30.
04.06.2007: Prickly pear cactus pads may control diabetes in Mexico
Nopales are made from the young stem segments of prickly pear cactus, peeled to remove the spines. Opuntia ficus indica and other cactuses are cultivated in Mexico. Nopales are very rich in insoluble and especially soluble dietary fibre. They are also rich in vitamines and minerals.
Nopales reduces the glycemic effect of a mixed meal according to Bacardi-Gascon and colleagues 2007 who studied the effect of the cactus pear nopales on blood sugar levels when eaten with regular Mexican fodder like burritos and quesadillas. Bacardi-Gascon and colleagues concluded that Mexican patients could use nopales as a culturally based choice for the management of diabetes. 
Caterpillars of the Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), known as the Prickly Pear Moth feed on the pads (cladodes) of cactus and may endanger yelds. 
 Wikipedia, the free enzyclopedia: Nopal
 Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Duenas-Mena, Dulce; and Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo:Lowering Effect on Postprandial Glycemic Response of Nopales Added to Mexican Breakfasts
Diabetes Care 2007, Volume 30: 1264-1265.
 USDA National Agricultural Library: Invasive Species: Cactus Moth http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/animals/cactusmoth.shtml
04.06.2007: Fifth Annual CJD Foundation Family Conference 
The fifth annual CJD Foundation Family Conference, July 6-8 in Washington, D.C. and also join our advocacy visits to the Hill on July 9. Check http://www.cjdfoundation.org/headlines.php?ptime=1166193255 website for the Program, and other information about this event.
Some of the problems the foundation looks after are:
Reduction of BSE tests on US cows 
Over the last few years, a type of Acquired CJD called variant (vCJD) has been identified in young people. vCJD has been linked to ingestion of beef tainted with BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), most cases have occurred in the United Kingdom. Testing cows being slaughtered helped to reduce the risk of vCJD.
However, according to Florence's Newsletter, the USDA tests so few cows it would be impossible for anyone to know how prevalent U.S. BSE really is. Cattle testing was increased from 40,000 per year to 375,000 for an 18 month period following the discovery - there are 35 million cattle slaughtered for the U.S. food supply each year. 
The Secretary of Agriculture Mike Johanns was asked last July by a commission leaded by the CDJ Disease Foundation that the increased number of BSE testing should not be cut back but instead that it be increased. One week after this petition USDA cut back to the previous 40,000. 
In a letter to Florence at Creutzfeld-Jacobs Disease Foundation dated October 3, 2006 Mr. Johanns stated.... "With regard to USDA's activities, it is important to understand ...USDA's BSE surveillance is being conducted not as a food safety measure but rather as a monitoring effort designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the United States' BSE safeguarding measures with respect to animal health".
According to Florence it is difficult to understand how human risk from infected meat takes a back seat to what appears to be a policy benefiting specific special interest groups. 
A statement released yesterday reported that Japan and South Korea will soon be opening their borders to our cattle again based on the U.S. upgraded rating from the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) from "possible risk" to "controlled risk". The USDA's Chief Veterinary Office Dr. Ron DeHaven serves as the U.S. official delegate to the OIE. Through the OIE decision the USDA is now able to avoid accountability at all costs, even those directly related to human lives. 
Annual Family Conference Schedule Tentative Schedule July 6 --9, 2007
 May Newsletter by wanda May 30, 2007 02:03 PM News; May 23, 2007
04.06.2007: New-Zealand GM cow produces skim milk 
In an article by Cath O'Driscoll in Chemistry and Industry genetic modification of cows to produce skim milk is reported. The authors claim that special genes could be used to breed herds of animals producing only skimmed milk.
The authors say that a commercial herd will be available by 2011. The research is being done by the biotech firm ViaLactia at the dairy co-operative Fonterra which already makes milk from one of the GM cows which was named Merge. The new GM cow will fit very well into the good selling market of low fat products.
According to the authors this could reduce the surplus of cream and there would be no need for disposal. However, the cream is used to make butter and other products such as ice cream, confectioneries,and bakeries. There is no need for a genetic modification of cows to produce skimmed milk. The dairy industry does this with powerful centrifuges.
Another exciting development of their cows they are working on is to produce a GM cow which
gives butter that is spreadable straight from the fridge. Experiments to soften butter using special feed are not so successful as the change to GM cows.
 O'Driscoll, Cath: Skimmed milk straight from the cow. Chemistry and Industry 28 May 2007 - Issue No 10 - Page 11
03.06.2007: The White Paper on nutrition, overweight and obesity 
The white paper on A Strategy for Europe on Nutrition, Overweight and Obesity related health issues was adopted by the European Commission on 30.05.2007. It is based on the EU Platform for Action on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, initiated in 2005, and green paper on promoting healthy diets and physical activity 2005. The paper contains principles for action and partnership approach. It focuses better-informed consumer, allowing them to make informed, evidence-based decisions about what foods to buy to tackle obesity. 
The Commission's preference, at this stage, is to keep the existing voluntary
approach at EU level due to the fact that it can potentially act quickly and effectively to tackle
rising overweight and obesity rates. 
Voluntary efforts to ensure adverts aimed at children should be combined with rules at the level of individual member states, such as those recently implemented by the Office of Communication in the UK. Industry has already taken important steps but these have not always been uniform across products and Member States. Some Member States are encouraging reformulation of foods, for example in terms of their levels of fat, saturated and trans fats, salt and sugar. 
All these reformulations (and there are only few of them) took place under heavy pressure of consumer associations or retailers fearing bad publicity.
The CIAA has fought against being seen as a scapegoat for obesity and welcomes the White Paper, enforcing physical exercise to reduce obesity, and refers to its own Brochure  
Eurocommerce, speaking for its members, welcomes the White Paper stressing the importance of education programme in schools, since nutrition and healthy lifestyle education should start at an early age.
The European Consumers Organisation BEUC, however, says the White Paper is disappointing because it relies on revision of nutritional labelling. Advertising of food for children is mentioned vaguely about partnerships and voluntary measures, with a review in 2010.
BEUC says what consumers urgently need is simple and understandable on-pack labelling to help them make the most appropriate nutritional choices, since they cannot rely on advertising. Promotion of foods high in fat, sugar and salt for children exerts pressure on parents, but the solution, relies on the source of pressure on advertising. 
 White Paper on a Strategy for Europe on Nutrition, Overweight and Obesity related health issues
 CIAA statement on Commission's White Paper on Nutrition, Overweight and Obesity. CIAA News 31.05.2007.
 CIAA Brochure: Promoting balanced diets and healthy lifestyles.
Eurocommerce Commerce welcomes the White Paper establishing an EU strategy to fight against obesity. Brussels, 30 May
beuc: The White Paper is like many slimming regimes - built on false hopes and unrealistic expectations
03.06.2007: Supplements with vitamin B may be harmful 
It is known that folate deficiency induces DNA breaks and may alter cellular capacity for mutation and epigenetic methylation.
However, Schernhammer and colleagues 2007 found that supplements did not reduce the risk of cancer. B vitamins from multivitamin pills increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer by 139 per cent.
The mechanism of the different effect from vitamin from supplements and the effect of vitamins absorbed from food is unknown.
The authors suggest that the growth of a dormant tumor may be stimulated by folate and other similar vitamins, especially in case if a person with chronic shortage of these nutrients in his diet suddenly starts taking multivitamins in an effort to become healthy. Similar results have been found studying oestrogen-rich soy. Women eating soy all life long reduced the risk of breast cancer, but those who suddenly started to eat soy did increase the risk.
In this study nonusers of multivitamins were found to have a modest inverse trend between folate, PLP, and B12 and pancreatic cancer risk. This has not been observed among people using multivitamin supplement and among those who obtain these factors exclusively through dietary sources, there may be an inverse relation between vitamin B and the risk.
The authors advice is to maintain a normal weight and eat their fruit and vegetables to avoid pancreatic cancer. Liver, wholegrain cereals, dairy products and green vegetables are good sources of B vitamins.
 Schernhammer, Eva; Wolpin, Brian;Rifai, Nader; Cochrane, Barbara; Manson, Jo An; Ma, Jing; Giovannucci, Ed; Thomson, Cynthia; Stampfer, Meir and Fuchs, Charles: Plasma folate, vitamins B6, B12, and homocysteine and pancreatic cancer risk in four large cohorts Cancer Research 1 June 2007, Volume 67, Issue 11 5553-5560.
03.06.2007 Antimicrobial silver as antimicrobial agent in packaging materials
To increase shelf life of food products a line of styrene copolymers using silver-based antimicrobial ingredients from Agion were developed by BASF providing continuous protection from microbes by releasing silver ions to the surface of the product at a slow and steady rate
Silver is already being incorporated in plastics, such as used in refrigerators, water filtration, cutting boards, cellphones, keyboard and clinical devices turning the surfaces self sanitising. 
European cheese coating with silver ions
According Ag POLYMER an antimicrobial cheese polymer coating with silver-ion zeolite ist intended to coat cheese and protect it from microbes in the European dairy industry. 
Agion's silver antimicrobial ingredient has been approved for food and water contact by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Food Safety Agency.It is a notified existing substance under the EU's directive European Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) and listed for use as an indirect food contact substance with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 
 Agion Antimicrobial: BASF forms exclusive partnership with Agion Technologies. Press release May 25, 2007.
 Agion Technologies and AgPOLYMER Introduce Antimicrobial Cheese Coating Polymers Press release April 24, 2007
 Agion: Regulatory guidance
02.06.2007: FTC Children's Exposure to TV Advertising Report 
The research looks at television ad exposure for children in the year 2004 and compares it to similar research from 1977. The report also finds that children are not exposed to more food ads on television than they were in the past, although their ad exposure is more concentrated on children’s programming. This means that it turns out to be more refined, concentrating on the susceptible group of children aged 2-11 years.
FTC says that food ads account for 22 percent, and hildren get approximately half of their food advertising and about one-third of their total television advertising exposure from programs in which children are at least 50 percent of the audience.
According to the FTC Report the winner of most frequent food ads was "Restaurants and Fast Food" (Last of the133 pages). 
The CSPI comments this report and says that the 2004 findings are no cause for much celebration. As parents know, television is just a one slice of an ever-expanding pie of food marketing aimed at kids. CSPI sees the future that food advertisers are engaging in a massive, sophisticated multimedia campaign to get kids to eat junk food. It's a campaign that uses in-school marketing, games on websites, licensed "spokescharacters" on food packages, and other tactics. It's a campaign that helps fuel the skyrocketing rates of childhood obesity and diabetes. There's virtually no encouragement at all to eat healthy foods like fruits and vegetables. And that kind of corporate irresponsibility is why parents are increasingly looking to Congress and even the courts to help protect kids' health. 
The activity of the UK government banning completely junk food from children TV is a good step forward to avoid children obesity.
To promote healthy foods the CSPI proudly presents:
Ten foods you should NEVER eat
Ten superfoods for better health
 Federal Trade Commission. Protecting America's Consumer: Children not seeing more food ads on Television. Release 01.06.2007
 Federal Trade Commission:The Report June 1, 2007
 CSPI Food Marketers Rely less on TV in Favour of Other Marketing, Says CSPI about FTC Report. Friday, June 1, 2007
 26.02.2007: OFCOM UK advertising regulations far better than US self regulation.
01.06.2007Eating regularly in some fast-food chain outlets is unsafe in many parts of the world according to a study presented at the 15th European Congress on Obesity Budapest.  
Food quality and portion sizes need to be improved dramatically, according to the Copenhagen University research group, led by Prof Steen Stender, who found major variations in the quality of products offered by the same chains across 35 countries.
Fast foods examined in the global survey were found to have not just a high fat content, but also up to 17 times the level of trans-fatty acids legally permitted in Denmark, which introduced a ban in 2004. Business directors deliberately breaching the Danish restriction could face stiff fines and up to two years in jail.
Countries with unsafe foods
Eastern Europe fared particularly badly in the survey with Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland and the Czech Republic topping the table with levels of unhealthy trans-fats accounting for 29-34% of the fat content.
Countries meeting the Danish standard
Fast food in India, Russia, Spain and in Scotland met the Danish standard requiring less than 2% of the total fat content in a product to be trans-fats.
Wide discrepancies with McDonald's food
Checks on McDonald's also revealed wide discrepancies, with the highest percentage of trans-fats found in Oman at 20%. In the United Kingdom, samples in London, Glasgow and Aberdeen reached 15-16%, with levels of 14-15% in Hong Kong, Poland and South Africa, compared to 14-16% found in US outlets.
After analysing 74 samples of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005 and 2006, they concluded that the idea that a typical fast-food meal was the same worldwide was "a myth".
According to Prof Arne Astrup the companies selling foods with high levels of trans-fat disregard customers' health. They will only really respond when there are regulations as tough as they are in Denmark.
Recommendations to Fast Food chains
The authors suggest fast food chains should provide reliable nutritional information, which requires better standardisation of the foods used and recommend suppliers take action to reduce portions to "normal" sizes and eliminate industrially produced trans fat, as well as offering burgers made of lean meat, whole grain bread/buns, fat-reduced mayonnaise, add more vegetable, lower-fat fried potatoes and reduced-sugar soft drinks.
 15th European Congress on Obesity Budapest, Hungary April 22-25 2007: Fast Food Health Lottery- Frequent Consumption "Unsafe" warns Obesity Experts.
01.06.2007: TV Junk Food advertising ban
The junk food advertising ban in UK should be introduced all over Europe to tackle the obesity problem. Two recent studies confirmed TV adds influencing children nutritional habits.
The Campden and Chorelywood report on children's food choice 
Campden and Chorelywood Food Research Association (CCFRA) has published a review that aims to bring together all the research on triggers for children's food choices - be it biological or physiological, or related to taste, hunger, appearance, family habits, schools, advertising, cost and availability. This report supports UK government efforts to reduce children TV advertising of high fat, sugar and salt foods.
The Liverpool University 2007 obesity study 
In a study conducted by Dr Jason Halford and colleagues from the University of Liverpool, a group of 60 children of varying weights, aged between nine and eleven years was shown a series of both food television adverts and toy adverts, followed by a cartoon. Food intake following the food adverts was significantly higher compared with the toy adverts in all weight groups, with the obese children increasing their consumption by 134%; overweight children by 101% and normal weight children by 84%.
The researchers concluded that food TV advertising has a profound effect on all children's eating habits, doubling their consumption rate. The TV ban is still not full effective because many children still watch in the evening when the ban does not apply. It will therefore be necessary to extend the ban for later hours. This study presented at the 15th European Congress on Obesity 22-25 May 2007 in Budapest helps to back up the UK efforts to ban TV junk food advertising
CCFRA Review No. 53 (2007): Issues in children's food choices: methods for sensory and consumer research.
University of Liverpool: TV food adverts increase obese children's appetite by 134%. Press release 24.05.2007.