The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) had judged that Amflora is, for humans, animals and the environment, unlikely to pose a threat o human health. However, Austria, Italy and Ireland voted on 16.07.07 against giving Amflora the green light yesterday, whereas France and Bulgaria
The EU trade commissioner Peter Mandelson in a speech, had warned from not approving the GM potato saying that in this case Europe would suffer economic consequences.
EuropaBio had backed Amflora, saying that the GM potato would strengthen the competitiveness of the potato starch industry.
Although Amflora is intended for the production of starch for industrial applications. However, the remaining potato pulp is to be used as an animal feed. The food chain is therefore directly affected. Therefore the negative vote of Austria, Italy and Ireland was welcomed by environmental
BASF joined Monsanto to invest 1.2 billion euros to develop GM corn, cotton and soya in the next 10 years.
 See OurFood-News 29.06.2007: EU Council of Ministers postpones its decision on approval of GM Amflora potato from BASF
20.07.2007: Very high intake of fruits and vegetable does not reduce the risk of breast cancer  
Marcia Stefanick and colleagues found that women who were previously treated for early stage breath cancer, and found that adopting a diet very high in vegetables, fruit and fibre and low in fat (doubling the five-a-day recommendations) did not have a lower risk of breast cancer recurrence, compared to women who followed a diet of five or more servings a day (400g) of fruit and vegetables.
The authors, however affirm that that fruit and vegetables do conferred benefits, but getting more than the recommended amounts doesn't change the recurrence rate for women who have already completed treatment for early-stage breast cancer.
The authors concluded that available data do not support best practice dietary recommendations to improve long-term prognosis for early stage breast cancer survivors.
Thomas L. Schwenk commenting the current trial argues that the relatively small differences in the diets between the groups and the fairly short follow-up time (7,5 y) may have caused the disappointing results. In any case, this study shows that relatively small changes in vegetable, fruit, and fat intake alone did not make a difference in reducing the risk for breast cancer recurrence. 
 Pierce JP, Stefanick, M.L. et al.: Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: The Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial. JAMA 2007 Jul 18; 298:289-98.
 Gapstur, Susan M.; KhanFat, Seema: Fruits, Vegetables, and Breast Cancer Survivorship. Editorial: Journal of the American Medical Association 2007;298:335-336.
 Schwenk, Thomas L.: Diet and Breath Ca<ncer. Comment publisched in Journal Watch General Medicine July 17, 2007
20.07.2007: High protein diet may allow ingestion of high-glycemic index carbohydrates without high blood glucose response 
Mandy Claessens and colleagues 2007 say that high-protein diets are beneficial in weight maintenance because of their satiating and thermogenic effects. These effects may be partly mediated by the hormonal effects of proteins. The researchers tested the effect of soy protein hydrolysates on diet-induced thermogenesis and insulin response with and without a carbohydrate pre- and afterload.
They found that the dietary induced thermogenic effect was larger after protein than after a carbohydrate load. This may be related to the glucagon response that is induced by protein but not by charbohydrates. The protein-induced dietary induced termogenesis and glucagon response are not influenced by a carbohydrate pre- or afterload; and that protein ingestion can fully prevent the plasma glucose increase associated with carbohydrates when they are ingested after proteins. This condition may allow ingestion of high-glycemic index carbohydrates without the associated high blood glucose response.
 Claessens, Mandy; Calame, Wim; Siemensma, André D.;. Saris, Wim H.M.; van Baak, Marleen A.: The thermogenic and metabolic effects of protein hydrolysate with or without a carbohydrate load in healthy male subjects. Metabolism (Elsevier) August 2007, Volume 56, Issue 8, Pages 1051-1059. Metabolism (Elsevier)
19.07.2007: Ethyl lauroyl arginate as a food preservative 
The active ingredient of ethyl lauroyl arginate, ethyl-Nα-lauroyl–L-arginate HCl, is the hydrochloride salt of an N-fatty acylsubstituted amino acid ethyl ester.
Ethyl lauroyl arginate is intended to be used as a preservative. The anti-microbial activity of ethyl lauroyl arginate is due to the cationic surfactant properties of its active ingredient ethyl-Nα-lauroyl-L-arginate.
It is concluded that, on ingestion by humans, ethyl lauroyl arginate will be broken down to products of normal metabolism.
Based on the NOAEL of lower than 106 mg/kg bw/day. and a safety factor of 100, the Panel established an ADI of 0.5 mg ethyl lauroyl arginate of the proposed specifications /kg bw.
The safety factor of 100 is considered sufficient in spite of the fact that the ADI is based on a 90-day study because the effects on white blood cells do not become more severe upon prolonged exposure.
Potential dietary exposure to ethyl lauroyl arginate was estimated based on UK food consumption data and on the assumption that it would be present in all food categories for which use levels are proposed. Potential dietary exposure was found to be at or above the ADI in high consumers for both children aged 1.5 to 4.5 (580% of the ADI), children aged 4 to 18 (370% of the ADI) and adults (100% of the ADI). Potential mean dietary exposure to ethyl lauroyl arginate in consumers only was also at or above the ADI for both children aged 1.5 to 4.5 (170% of the ADI) and children aged 4 to 18 (106% of the ADI).
 EFSA: Opinion of the Scientific Panel AFC related to an application on the use of ethyl lauroyl arginate as a food additive. Publication Date: 16 July 2007
Future of Global Nutrition
19.07.2007: EU Commission: Bay of Biscay anchovy fishery to remain closed
The Bay of Biscay anchovy fishery which is currently closed until the end of the year will not be reopened. The advice, recently delivered by the Commission's Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee on Fisheries (STECF), was that "management measures other than complete closure of the fishery in 2007 should not be considered".
STECF estimated the quantity of adults in the stock at 30,000 tonnes. This is higher than last spring's 18,640 tonnes, but still well below the level at which commercial fishing can safely resume. Given the depleted state of this stock, and the short life span of anchovy, it is paramount that each adult be given the chance to contribute to the rebuilding of the stock.
 Commission: Bay of Biscay anchovy fishery to remain closed. Reference: IP/07/1139 Date: 19/07/2007
19.07.2007: European Code of Conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research
The European Commission has today announced a public consultation on responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research. The consultation will provide input for a Recommendation to the Member States on a possible Code of Conduct for this emerging area of science, which the Commission will put forward later this year.
At the same time, some, though not all, areas of nanoscience come with very specific issues, related to properties such as their minuscule size, their ability to cross natural bio-boundaries or potential to connect living creatures and man-made materials and systems. Therefore the responsible management and control of nano-sciences has become a very specific region of the science and technology landscape in the last decade, particularly as regards ethics, safety and environment and the fundamental rights of individuals, such as the protection of personal
 Commission launches consultation on responsible research in Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies. Reference: IP/07/1140 Date: 19/07/2007
19.07.2007: Call for a single unified US Food Safety Agency 
According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) all imported meat and poultry products are visually inspected at the border and subject to microbial and chemical testing, 99 percent of imported seafood, produce, animal feeds, and grains pass through U.S. borders uninspected.
According to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, that’s because meat and poultry products are regulated by the well funded U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and most other foods are regulated by the woefully underfunded Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
CSPI food safety director Caroline Smith DeWaal said that even when USDA and FDA are operating at the same port, they don’t share inspectors. DeWaal said that Congress should dramatically increase funding for the FDA and modernize food safety laws that are more than a century old. Ultimately, Congress should create a single unified Food Safety Agency—a proposal championed by Senator Richard Durbin (D-IL) and Representative Rosa Delauro (D-CT) and recommended by the National Academy of
 CSPI: Chinese Import Scandal Demonstrates FDA Failings, Congress Told
CSPI Urges New Money for FDA, Ultimately Single Food Safety Agency . Press release Chinese Import Scandal Demonstrates FDA Failings, Congress Told
CSPI Urges New Money for FDA, Ultimately Single Food Safety Agency .
19.07.2007: Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Restricting Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trial
Food cravings are bound to calories, not carbohydrates 
Craved foods are related to high energy density and fat content, and low protein and fiber contents. Lifestyle modification programs for long-term weight loss Portion should be focussed on size of craved foods and frequency of giving in to food cravings.Understanding food and taste preferences and cravings may become important to tackle obesity epidemic.
According to the authors cravings resulted from dieting will be for calorie-dense foods. It is helpful to substitute foods that taste similar but have fewer calories, since the craving can be satisfied by related tastes. The authors recommend that allowing yourself to have the foods you crave, but doing so less frequently may be one of the most important keys to successful weight control.
 Gilhooly, C H; Das, SK; Golden, JK; McCrory, MA; Dallal, GE; Saltzman, EF; Kramer, M; Roberts, SB: Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during 6 months of dietary energy restriction. International Journal of Obesity doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803672. 26 June 2007
16.07.2007: Psychology of labelling: Low fat, high sugar
It was a good idea to bring a product with low fat (0,4%) and to hail it with giant letters on the front of the package.
However, it was not a good idea to add 6% of sugar, which stands for an amount of fat of 3% . Marketing wisely concealed this fact in small letters amidst the Ingredients List where quick shoppers never look.
Its legal, but the hidden psychological trick drives up obesity.
14.07.2007 Flavonoids derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium, the Horny Goatweed may have benefits against osteoporosis 
According to Ge Zhang and colleagues phytoestrogen flavonoids from Horny Goatweed (Epimedium brevicornum maxim) may prevent bone loss in late postmenopausal women without resulting in a detectable hyperplasia effect on the endometrium.
The marker of bone resorption deoxypyrdinoline was decreased by by 39 per cent after two years in the supplemented group compared with no supplementation.
These results add to similar results from the soy phytoestrogen isoflavones study, reporting that a 90 mg/d dose of soy isoflavones may improve bone density. 
Another study related to isoflavones reports that high soy consumption was linked with a 48 per cent decrease in fractures for women who had been menopausal for less than 10 years. 
 Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling; Shi, Yinyu: Epimedium-Derived Phytoestrogen Flavonoids Exert Beneficial Effect on Preventing Bone Loss in Late Postmenopausal Women: A 24-Month Randomized, Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. July 2007, Volume 22, Pages 1072-1079, doi: 10.1359/jbmr.070405
 Ma, D-H.; Qin, L-Q.; Wang, P-Y.; Katoh, R.: Soy isoflavone intake inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 28. March 2007, doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602748
 Zhang, Xianglan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Li; Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei: Prospective Cohort Study of Soy Food Consumption and Risk of Bone Fracture Among Postmenopausal Women. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1890-1895.
14.07.2007: Cancer-risk from soft drinks – Lawsuit against PepsiCo and others 
A lawsuit in the US demand that beverage makers like PepsiCo remove their drinks from store shelves and reformulate their products. The drinks contain chemical preservatives sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate (or benzoic acid) together with ascorbic acid or vitamin C. These ingredients can stimulate the formation of cancerigenous benzene. The reaction increases with elevated temperatures
FDA had tolerated this for 15 years, asking the companies to reformulate their products, however, the producers did not change their products. Now they are forced by law to reformulate the soft drinks, fruit nectars and flavoured waters. 
More than 1,500 new soft drinks containing sodium benzoate (or benzoic acid) and ascorbic acid or citric were marketed in Europe, North America and Latin America in the last four years. The lawsuit is bound to USA borders, The problem will therefore continue in other countries.
Check here products with high content of cancer-risk Benzene 
Outstanding high benzene levels were found by FDA in:
Giant Diet Sun Pop Orange, Safeway Select Diet Orange, Shasta Caffeine Free Orange Soda, Sunny D Citrus Punch, AquaCal Strawberry Flavored Water, AquaCal Peach Mango Flavored Water Beverage, AquaCal Concord Grape Flavored Water Beverage, BellyWashers Black Cherry Blast Vitamin C Juice Drink, BellyWashers Battle Berry Vitamin C Juice Drink, BellyWashers Eerie Berry Vitamin C Juice Drink, Faygo Moon Mist, Crystal Light Sunrise Classic Orange, Rush! Energy Lite Drink, Kool-Aid Jammers 10 Juice Drink Tropical Punch, Kool-Aid Jammers Juice Drink Kiwi-Strawberry, Giant Light Cranberry Juice Cocktail, Ocean Spray Light Cranberry Juice Cocktail, NEW Crystal Light Sunrise Classic Orange, Diet Wild Cherry Pepsi, Baja Orange, Baja Berry, Diet Rockstar, Polar Diet Orange Dry, Shasta Caffeine Free Regular Orange.
The brands are: PepsiCo, Sunny Delight Beverages Co., Rockstar Inc., Polar Beverages Inc. Shasta Beverages Inc. 
FDA believes Benzene in soft drinks of no safety concern 
FDA believes that the results of CFSAN's recent survey indicate that the levels of benzene found in soft drinks do not pose a safety concern.
Do not believe what FDA does. Safety on cancer risk is zero tolerance. Most of the soft drinks are being heavily consumed by children a cancer- risk of exposure in childhood will follow them the whole life.
Benzene in soft drinks should be seen in the context of wider environmental exposure. Taking the worst example found to date, of a soft drink containing 87.9ppb benzene, someone drinking a 500ml can would ingest 44μg (micrograms) of benzene. Whilst there is no justification for a soft drink to contain high levels of benzene ("There is a difference here between a small and unavoidable risk, and a small but avoidable risk.”). The European Union also criticized the FDA for not acting on the Total Diet Study results showing the nearly 80% of the diet soft drinks exceeded the federal drinking water standards. 
The use of preservatives in soft drinks
Chemical preservatives such as benzoates (or benzoic acid) are the source of benzene. There is no need of chemical preservation when cleaning and disinfection systems of the packaging material and the production line are made periodically according to a HACCP system. The need of preservatives indicate a loophole of cleaning and food safety of the production line.
FDA testing does not represent the reality 
The independent scientist James Neal-Kababick woke up FDA from their lethargy and presented a better test for benzene. He claims that products on shelves, exposed to heat may develop more benzene as found in so-called off-the-shelf testing of FDA.
Protection for your kinds and yourself
Read the INGREDIENT LIST. Look for preservative: BENZOATE or BENZOIC ACID do not buy these drinks. They pose cancer risk.
 The Journal News: Pepsi agrees to settlement in benzene lawsuit. 12.07.2007
 Food Navigator: Pepsi and others settle benzene lawsuit. 13.07.2007
 FDA: Data on Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages: Data through May 16, 2007
 FDA Statement April 13 2006: Benzene in Soft Drinks.
 Wikipedia, the free enzyclopedia: Benzene in soft drinks
12.07.2007: Marketing strategies
|Labeling of energy, fat,carbohydrates and protein in front of package is good action, however it does not match the intended goal of UK Food Standards Agency. It does not use the colors proposed by the FSA. The members of the European Union should hold on such standard decisions.|
UK Traffic light labeling
initiated by the UK FSA uses the colors RED for bad (high) , YELLOW for middle (acceptable) and GREEN for good amount.
|Some marketing strategies try to bring their labeling as near as possible to high values. Such as the Fruit Yoghurt YOGANIC which may be interpreted wrongly as ORGANIC. This product is not of organic origin.|
12.07.2007: Calcium ascorbate with a content of threonate for use as a source of vitamin C in food supplements 
According to the opinion of the Scientific Panel of The European Food Safety Authority the bioavailability of vitamin C from calcium ascorbate with a content of threonate is comparable to that of ascorbic acid.
The Panel noted that threonate is a normal metabolite in the body and concluded that the use of calcium ascorbate containing up to 2% threonate as a source of vitamin C in food supplements is not of safety concern.
22 Ring-substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) 
when the Scientific Panel examined the information provided by the European flavouring industry on The informations provided by the European flavouring industry were found to be grossly underestimating the intake by regular consumers of products
flavoured at the reported use level
In consequence, the Scientific Panel had reservations about the data on use and use levels provided and the intake estimates obtained by the MSDI approach.
According to the default MSDI approach, the 23 flavouring substances in this group have intakes in Europe from 0.001 to 2.2 microgram/capita/day, which are below the thresholds of concern for both structural class I (1800 microgram/person/day) and structural class II (540 microgram/person/day) substances.
One of the flavouring substances, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenol [FL-no: 04.080] was reported to have a genotoxic potential in vitro while in vivo studies were not available for this candidate substance. Therefore, the Panel decided that the Procedure could not be applied to this flavouring substance until adequate genotoxicity data become available. The genotoxicity data available for the other flavouring substances in the present Flavouring Group Evaluation do not preclude their evaluation through the Procedure.
The flavouring substances in this group are conjugated with glucuronic acid or sulphate very efficiently, pathways which are not easily saturated. At high dose levels reactive metabolites (quinones, catechols, quinone methides) may be formed, but it is not expected that at intake levels estimated from the use as flavouring substances the formation of these metabolites would overwhelm the detoxication capacity through conjugation with sulphate, glucuronic acid or in particular glutathione. Thus, it is concluded that all 22 substances in this group which have been evaluated using the Procedure may be expected to be metabolised to innocuous substances at the estimated levels of intake, based on the MSDI approach.
Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity tests for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 22 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure and these would present no safety concern at the levels of intake estimated on the basis of the Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI) approach.
 EFSA: Opinion of the Scientific Panel AFC related to Calcium ascorbate with a content of threonate for use as a source of vitamin C in food supplements. Publication Date: 29 May 2007.
 EFSA: Opinion of the Scientific Panel AFC related to Flavouring Group Evaluation22: Ring-substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000). Publication Date: 4 May 2007.
12.07.2007: Food colour Red 2G used in certain sausages and burger meat raises potential safety concerns
The AFC Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has adopted on the 5th of July 2007an opinion on the food colour Red 2G (E 128). The use of this colour which is only permitted in certain breakfast sausages and burger meat raised potential health concerns. This is the first opinion in a series of re-evaluations EFSA is currently undertaking on the safety of food additives, including colours, authorised in the European Union (EU).
Red 2G has been shown to convert largely in the body into a substance, called aniline. Based on animal studies the Panel concluded that aniline should be considered as a carcinogen
On the basis of the EFSA evaluation, the UK Food Standards Agengy recommends that food producers stop using Red 2G.
Under current European Union legislation, Red 2G is only permitted for use in specific meat products, namely, breakfast sausages with a minimum cereal content of 6% and burger meat with a minimum vegetable and/or cereal content of 4%. Red 2G is not permitted to be used as an additive in any other foods. Red 2G is likely to only be present in the specified products at very low levels and does not pose an immediate health risk to consumers. 
 EFSA re-evaluates safety of food colours and adopts first opinion
Food colour Red 2G raises potential safety concerns. Publication Date: 9 July 2007 .
 Advice on food colouring. Tuesday 10 July 2007
10.07.2007 First African GM plant ready to be commercialised 
Scientists at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and the South African seed company, Pannar Pty, developed a genetically modified (GM) maize is resistant to maize streak viruses (MSV) which are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and adjacent Indian Ocean islands.
The scientists say that he maize will only be sold in Africa. A mutated protein from maize streak viruses was introduced in the chromosome of the GM maize prevents the virus from replicating and killing the plant. It is planed also to modify barley, wheat, oats, sugarcane, and millet, which suffer from similar diseases.
Growing global GM cultivation 
The African CM maize will cause a further increase of the world total acreage cultivated with GM crops. The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) showed that in 2006 the number of hectares globally cultivated with GM crops increased by 12 million hectares. Most of this growth came from countries such as China and India.
The report is co-sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, a U.S.-based philanthropic organization associated with the Green Revolution that saved up to a billion lives in the 1960s, and Ibercaja, one of the largest Spanish banks headquartered in the maize growing region of Spain.
Key GM planting countries
According tp a report ISAAA.org key GM planting countries are:
The Americas: The United States continues to drive growth in North America and globally, accounting for the greatest absolute acreage increase in 2006 with the addition of 4.8 million hectares. Brazil leads growth in South America with an increase of 22 percent to total 11.5 million hectares of soybeans and biotech cotton, the latter commercialized for the first time in 2006.
Asia: India is emerging as a key leader in Asia. The country tallied the most substantial percentage increase at 192 percent or 2.5 million hectares to total 3.8 million hectares, jumping two spots in the world ranking to become the fifth largest producer of biotech crops in the world, surpassing China for the first
Africa: South Africa made significant strides in the past year to lead the African continent forward by almost tripling its biotech crop area. Notably, the gain came from Bt white maize, primarily used for food, and Bt yellow maize used for livestock
Europe: Growth also continues in the countries of the EU where Slovakia became the sixth EU country out of 25 to plant biotech crops. Spain continues to lead the continent, planting 60,000 hectares in 2006; however, the other five EU countries reported a five-fold increase in plantings from 1,500 hectares in 2005 to about 8,500
hectares in 2006
 University of Cape Town: Scientists gear up to take GM maize into the field
26 January 2007
 International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications: Global Biotech Area Surges Past 100 Million Hectares on 13 Percent Growth. Study predicts 200 million hectares, 20 million farmers by 2015
10.07.2007: German hydrogen technology may avoid global energy shortage and green arid regions
War for land and oil 
change, and the resulting shortage of ecological resources, could be to blame for armed conflicts in the future, according to David Zhang from the University of Hong Kong and colleagues. The authors found that temperature fluctuations and reduced agricultural production explain warfare frequency in eastern China in the past in societies with limited technology such as pre-industrial China. Zhang and colleagues suggest that shortages of essential resources, such as fresh water, agricultural land, energy sources and minerals may trigger more armed conflicts among human societies.
Energy dependence 
dependence of the new technology era adds another war potential. To avoid increase of conflict between USA and oil rich territories, The United States, with less than 5% of the world
population, emits over 25% of the worlds´ carbon dioxide
United nations should act on:
1- Development of carbon dioxide and nuclear free energy technology
2- Avoiding desertification and restoring agriculture arid zones.
The German hydrogen technology 
The EU Project known as Zero Regio is a cooperation with the EU, German government and industrial corporations. AGIP maintains fuel stations for hydrogen cars in Frankfuirt and suroundings. The whole technology of production of hydrogen, its storage, transportation and handling has been developed and is being maintained by the project.
The EU commitment to climate, environmental friendly energy and African aid. 
Due to the proximity to the arid zones of northern Africa it should be a primary task of the EU to tackel climate change, energy dependence , poverty and growing desertification.
The Speech of José Manuel Durão Barroso President of the European Commission: The EU: ending the doubts on energy and climate change
IFRI energy programme Brussels, 24 May 2007:
“Attention should focus on strengthening the EU Africa dialogue on access to energy and energy security; increasing investment in energy infrastructure, including promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy; placing capacity building in the areas of energy and climate change high on our agenda of development aid; encouraging the flow of oil and gas revenues into development; promoting greater transparency and investment-friendly frameworks; and mainstreaming climate change into development cooperation. Let us be frank – those who will be hardest hit by climate change will be those who can least afford it.
A key milestone for progress this year is the UN Climate Conference in Bali this December. The EU has already launched the worldwide debate on climate change; if we continue to lay the groundwork at other events this year, then I hope Bali will be the moment to launch negotiations on a global and comprehensive, post-2012
Details of the project
A feasibility study will analyse the possibility of covering large area of desert zones of northern Africa with photovoltaic. in a first phase 2.500 km² of desert will be covered by PV cells, delivering electrical energy sufficient to produce 18 Million Tons/y of hydrogen. Climate change due to shadowing the area would regain it for agriculture.
A second phase of the project uses the feed-back from from the first module, will increase the area covered by PV cells. Rotation of the location of the modules should turn the arid zones back to arable regions. This will be an enormous aid to reduce poverty as the hosting countries could demand royalties for their wealth of sun energy.
Low-priced access of produced hydrogen to the international energy market is the aim of this phase of the project.
At the third phase wil mark handover of the outcomes of the project to the management of the United Nations.
 Zhang DD, Zhang J, Lee HF, He Y (2007). Climate change and war frequency in eastern China over the last millennium. Human Ecology; (DOI: 10.1007/s10745-007-9115-8)
 Kyoto Protocol on climate change: Need for committed international solidarity. Doc. 9058 24 April 2001
 Zero Regio: June 2007: Project-CD ROM Online
 José Manuel Durão Barroso, President of the European Commission: The EU: ending the doubts on energy and climate change IFRI energy programme Brussels, 24 May 2007 http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/332&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
Food-Borne Virus Diseases
07.07.2007: Avian flue hits Germany again
Dead wild birds had been detected in several places of Germany. One outbreak in a small farm in Thuringia, Germany was now confirmed as being caused by H5N1. Around 3 three kilometer all poultry were culled by veterinary officials.
All over Germany poultry is being kept indoors.The last German outbreak of the disease took place on 5. April 2006 in a farm near Leipzig. 21.000 animald had to be culled. In 2007 outbreaks already Hungary, Czechia and Great Britain
 Spiegel Online:Thüringen- Vogelgrippe-Erreger bei Nutztieren entdeckt
06.07.2007: Small amounts of dark chocolate lower blood pressure 
Acording to a researche of Dirk Taubert and colleagues, 2007, blood pressure could be reduced including relatively small amounts of dark chocola top diet.
6.3 g (30 kcal) of dark chocolate containing 30 mg of polyphenols were given to the patients for 18 weeks.Blood pressure and plasma markers of vasodilative nitric oxide (S-nitrosoglutathione) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) and the bioavailability of the cocoa polyphenols were measured. Systolic pressure was found to have
fallen by 2.9 mm of mercury and diastolic pressure by 1.9 mm.
The researchers pointed out that although the changes in BP appeared small they were clinically noteworthy.For instance, a 3 mm reduction in blood pressure could reduce the relative risk of stroke mortality by 8%, of coronary artery disease by 5% and all cause mortality by
Sara Stanner at the British Heart Foundation noted that chocolate is high in fat and calories which are not good for the heart.A better way of getting polyphenols, vitamins and minerals to protect the heart is to consume 5 portions/day of fresh fruit and vegetables.
 Taubert, Dirk; Roesen, Renate; Lehmann, Clara; Jung, Norma; Schömig, Edgar: Effects of Low Habitual Cocoa Intake on Blood Pressure and Bioactive Nitric Oxide: A Randomized Controlled
Trial. JAMA. 2007;298:49-60.
06.07.2007: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) method reducing oxygen levels may increase infectivity of Listeria monocytogenes 
Jens Bo Andersen and colleagues 2007 found that Listeria cultivated under oxygen-restricted conditions were approximately 100 fold more invasive than similar cultures grown without oxygen restriction.
According to the authors oxygen restriction increases the initial translocation of Listeria from the gut lumen to internal organs, but does not influence the ability of the bacteria to proliferate inside the investigated
The authors suggest that the observed increased infectivity of L. monocytogenes grown under oxygen-restricted conditions can be attributed to an increased expression of the InternalinA (InlA) protein, which is known to be a key factor for virulence of L. monocytogenes,.
The authors stress that not only the number of Listeria present in a given food item, but that also the physiological condition of these bacteria is important for food safety, and that an oxygen-restricted L. monocytogenes cell represents a significantly higher risk than a cell grown without oxygen restriction.
This is highly relevant for safety assessment of this organism in food and calls for a revision of the systems for packaging under controlled atmosphere, which remove air from the space above food and flushes in inert gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
 Jens Bo Andersen, Bent B Roldgaard , Bjarke Bak Christensen and Tine Rask Licht: Oxygen restriction increases the infective potential of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo in guinea pigs. BMC Microbiology 2007, 7:55 doi:10.1186/1471-2180-7-55
Quality and Safety Standards
06.07.2007: Free Web Seminar on food safety and quality standards 
Single Food Audit Pack helps to meet the requirements of most internationally recognized food safety or quality standards including ISO 22000, ISO 9001, HACCP, GMP, BRC and IFS with a single audit. Join a FREE web seminar to learn more. SGS Group: Six Sigma Standard Info Session Next event: July 17, 2007 10-11 am Eastern DT
06.07.2007: Magnesium reduces diabetes type 2 risk 
Susanna C. Larsson and colleagues in a meta-analysis found that magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes, with every 100 mg per day increase in magnesium intake linked to a 15 per cent decrease in disease risk. The authors recommend therefore increased consumption of magnesium-rich foods such as whole grains, beans, nuts, and green leafy vegetables to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
 Larsson, Susana C.; Wolk,A.: Magnesium intake and risk of tpe-2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Internal Medicine (Blackwell Publishing)Published on-line, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2007.01840.x
05/07/2007: Organically grown tomatoes contain higher levels of flavonoids than conventional tomatoes
Alyson E. Mitchel and colleagues, comparing organic and conventional tomatoes over a period of ten years found that organically grown tomatoes contained on average 79 and 97 per cent more quercetin and kaempferol aglycones flavonoids than conventionally grown tomatoes.
The authors report that the levels of flavonoids increased over time in samples from organic treatments, whereas the levels of flavonoids did not vary significantly in conventional treatments. This increase corresponds not only with increasing amounts of soil organic matter accumulating in organic plots but also with reduced manure application rates once soils in the organic systems had reached equilibrium levels of organic matter.
Over-fertilisation of the conventionally grown plants was seen by the authors as the reason of reduced flavonoids in conventional tomatoes . Flavonoids are produced as a defence mechanism of the plant in response to nutrient deficiency in organic soils and therefore increase in tomatoes grown under such conditions.
The comment of UK FSA concerning organic tomatoes 
Andrew Wadge, from UK Food Standards AgencyI commenting the article of Williamso writes that there is not enough evidence to show that increasing intakes of flavonoid rich foods will reduce heart disease, because other factors associated with high fruit and vegetable intakes may be responsible for their cardiovascular protection.
Wadge stresses that the Agency has commissioned a large study that will assess the effect increasing consumption of flavonoid-rich and flavonoid-poor fruit and vegetables has on cardiovascular disease risk factors.
The British Tomato Growers’ Association technical expert is reported as saying that there is little difference between traditionally and organically grown tomatoes in Britain so he couldn’t see the opportunity for much difference in their nutritional value. 
 Mitchell, Alyson E. Hong, Yun-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Barrett, Diane M.;Bryant, D. E.; Denison, R. Ford; Kaffka, Stephen: Ten-Year Comparison of the Influence of Organic and Conventional Crop Management Practices on the Content of Flavonoids in TomatoesJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Published on-line ahead of print, ASAP Article doi: 10.1021/jf070344+ S0021-8561(07)00344-5
 FSA: Organic Tomatoes.05.07.2007
 FSA: N02039: Impact of increasing doses of flavonoid-rich and flavonoid-poor fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors in an 'at risk' group (URFAVS) 31.01.2007
04.07.2007: Officials hold back informations concerning nuclear power plant incident to influence Energy Summit of Cancellor Merkel 
On 28 June 2007 two German power plants were shut down because of unsettled incidents. 
An external fire in a transformator of the power plant of Krümmel, in the proximity of the metropolis Hamburg caused the failure of the cooling system of the core of the reactor. Pressure and the level of cooling water went down, safety valves opened . A second cooling system avoided further harm. This incident, however demonstrates that external incidents interfere in the security of the nuclear
The informations were held back by officials in order not influence the Energy Summit of Chancellor Merkel in Berlin on the 3 July 2007 which, under the pressure of the atomic lobby, decided the comeback of nuclear power plants in Germany in
This decision was held in detriment of research and backing new inovative projects, such as solar voltaic electricity power plant situated in the desert zone of North Africa, producing hydrogen which could fuel power plants elswhere with almost zero emision.
 Spiegel Online: Ministerium hielt Informationen über Reaktor-Zwischenfall zurück.
 Spiegel Online: Reactor Affected in Nuclear Power Plant Fire
04.07.2007: Unsafe EU From Farm to Fork  
UK Cadbury Schweppes pleads guilty for selling chocolate contaminated by a leaking waste water pipe with causing Salmonella montevideo strain outbreak.
According to the Birmingham City Council the company knew about the contamination but still sold the product, recalled the chocolate bars only after the UK Food Standards Agency. and the Health Protection Agency got envolved on the fact that 37 people were reported being infected by Cadbury chocolate products from January to June 2006.
Cadbury is accused of not reporting positive private tests revealing the presence of salmonella strain in January last year alleging the levels present did not pose a danger.
This is an infringement against article 19 (3) of the EU General Food Law. The food business operator is obliged to immediately inform the competent authorities if it considers or has reason to believe that a food which it has placed on the market may be injurious to human health. Cadbury Sweppes alleged that the low level of Salmonella had been considered by them as harmless and will get through the loophole of the Food Law, which leaves up to the producer to decide
whether or not he responds to the deviation. 
Dripping wate water contaminated the chocolate crumb (a mixture of sugar, milk and cocoa) during production at the plant in Marlbrook, Herefordshire.
Poor layout of the factory and inadequate drainage and disinfection equipment, and not having the EU hygiene rules Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) analysis in place are the cause of this scandal.
Affected Cadbury products: 
Cadbury Dairy Milk Turkish 250g; Cadbury Dairy Milk Caramel 250g; Cadbury Dairy Milk Mint 250g; Cadbury Dairy Milk eight chunk; Cadbury Dairy Milk 1kg; Cadbury Dairy Milk Button Easter Egg 105g; Cadbury Freddo 10p.
According to bacteriologist Professor Hugh Pennington of Aberdeen University the fat in chocolate actually preserves the salmonella from the normal intestinal defences. Very few salmonellas cause an infection The infection dose from chocolate is a thousand times smaller than eating it from traditional sources like meats.
According to the Food Standards Agency the presence of salmonella in ready-to-eat foods such as chocolate is unacceptable at any level.
Serious situation of European food industry ethic
The responsible head of Cadbury Sweppes has overlook serious problems of the layout of the factory. This situation must have gone on for a long time. The head of the company has knowingly failed to report and recall contaminated products. This is a serious disruption of commitment to ethic. While producing 97,000 tonnes of milk chocolate crumb every year, the company placed financial costs over food safety, selling chocolate with poisonous bacteria and disgusting waste water.
Serious situation of the official controls
It is an alarming loophole of the European food safety system and private certification
auditingsthat the Food authority in UK did not noticing poor layout of the Cadbury factory during normal check ups. Stronger surveillance by food authority of factories producing high fat and high sugar items
are necessary. Carelessness in cleaning and disinfection is frequent with these produces because they do not present signs of spoilage, so other products like meat or fresh produces do. UK food authority surveillance is to be blame, at least in part, for the Cadbury Sweppes salmonella scandal.
 FoodNavigator: Cadbury pleads guilty to all salmonella charges 04.07.2007
BBC NEWS: Cadbury salmonella scare probed 24.06.2007
 EU: Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food SafetyAuthority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety
 UK Food Standards Agency: Cadbury recall update 1 August 2006
03.07.2007: New Zealand produces update on work related to Campylobacter 
As concern around New Zealand’s high rates of campylobacteriosis continues, the New Zealand Food Safety Authority (NZFSA) has put together a report “A Background to Campylobacter” which sets out, in easy-to-understand terms, the scientific research that NZFSA has collated on Campylobacter in food and the practical measures currently in place to contain it, as well as an update on what is happening in this regard overseas.
Campylobacter is naturally present throughout the environment - in water, on animals (including birds and pets) as well as being found on meat and food products.
While different interventions may offer reductions in hazard levels at certain points in the farm-to-fork continuum, it is a combination of measures that is more likely to achieve the greatest reduction in risk to consumers.
According Steve Hathaway, Director of NZFSA, the agency is considering some short-term measures that will decrease contamination rates in poultry. However, the aim has always been to focus on not just removing the high levels of the pathogen from the food chain, but to find ways to prevent it getting there in the first place.
[1 ] NZFSA: New Zealand produces update on work related to Campylobacter
03.07.2007: EFSA and FDA Strengthen Cooperation in Food Safety Science 
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) signed the first U.S./European agreement in the area of assessing food safety risk. This is the first formal international cooperation agreement EFSA has signed and the first formal step in cooperation between the two bodies.
Food safety knows no national boundaries and the food chain is today truly a global one. Sharing data and knowledge across our two organisations is an important first step in achieving food safety.
The agreement is designed to facilitate the sharing of confidential scientific and other information between EFSA and the FDA, such as methodologies to ensure safety and wholesomeness of food A formal agreement ensures appropriate protection of such confidential information under the applicable legal frameworks in both the United States and the European Union.
 EFSA: EFSA and FDA Strengthen Cooperation in Food Safety Science
3.07.2008: Germany on the difficult way of energy management 
The Chancellor Merkel under the pressure of the lobby of the industry prepares the way for a comeback of nuclear energy in Germany at the Energy Summit in Berlin.
As highly capable to bring parties to a deal together, Merkel will surely bring the opposition to an agreement on this matter and will postpone the shut-down of nuclear power plants for 2020 for more 20 years.
 Spiegel Online: Merkel Nudges for Nuclear Power Comeback
03.07.2007: Production of probiotic culture 
Living bacterial strains of probiotics will be produced using a new technique which continuosly removes lactic acid during fermentation by electrodialyses.
Lactic acid limits the bacterial growth. Removig it from the system, as it is being formed, improves yields and quality of the probiotic culture. The Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) system was developed by the Danish firm Jurag Separation and can be combined with traditional or bipolar membrane electro dialysis processes continuously changing the direction of electrical current. It avoids thus fouling of the membrane. The system is a continuous ion-exchange across selective ion-exchange membranes without the use of resins.
 Jurag Separation: REED System
03.07.2007: Mandatory nutrition labelling for fast food chains 
Food regulators should should establish legislation requiring fast-food and other chain restaurants to list calories, saturated plus trans fat, carbohydrates, and sodium on printed menus, and just calories on menu boards, where space is limited.
Without clear, easy-to-use nutrition information, it's difficult to make informed choices at chain restaurants. Otherwise how can you know that a tuna fish salad sandwich has 50% more calories than a roast beef sandwich? Or that a small chocolate milkshake at McDonald’s has more calories than a Big Mac?
Although people eat out more than ever before, few restaurants provide nutrition information. As a result, we often are getting more calories, fat, and salt than we realize. This can be particularly problematic for people who watch what they eat to manage health conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, or high blood pressure.
Restaurant labelling regulations would give the citizens an important new tool to help us eat well and maintain a healthy weight. It would provide information that would allow people to take responsibility for their own health and make more informed decisions for a significant and growing part of our diet. And limiting the requirement to chain restaurants would not burden independent restaurants. Nutrition labelling would be a clever move for McDonnald´s and other fast food chains to improve its bad image as unhealthy food
CSPI: Why Menu Labeling Is Important
2.07.2007: Chromium (VI) in leather clothing and shoes problematic for allergy sufferers! 
BfR recommends strictly limiting levels in leather goods
Studies by the regulatory authorities of the federal states reveal that many leather goods like gloves, shoes or watch straps which come into direct contact with the skin contain high levels of chromium (VI). Hexavalent chromium is a strong allergen and it can lead to allergic skin reactions like contact eczema in sensitised individuals.
Clinical picture of Chromium VI allergy
The typical clinical picture is allergic contact eczema on the areas of the skin which come into contact with chromium (VI). Clothing which has direct skin contact should not, therefore, contain any chromium (VI).
Even the lowest levels of chromium (VI) in leather are sufficient to trigger an allergic reaction in hypersensitive individuals. At a level of 5 mg per kg leather half of the sensitised individuals already manifested allergic skin reactions like for instance contact eczema. The only effective protection for them against skin disorders is to avoid any contact with products containing chromium (VI).
At the present time the chromium content of leather goods has not been regulated by law apart from industrial safety provisions. In 2006 a DIN standard stipulated that the chromium (VI) levels in work gloves must be below the detection limit of three milligrams chromium (VI) per kilogram leather.
In more than 50% of leather goods such as gloves and shoes and other ware which is worn close to the skin like watch straps, chromium IV was found up to 10 mg/kg.
Tanning processing of hides
Normally, chromium (III) sulphate is used as the tanning agent. Chromium (VI) either appears as an impurity in the tanning substance or it is formed through oxidation from chromium (III) in the ensuing processing stages. There are methods available which can considerably reduce the chromium levels in the leather or even completely remove the chromium (VI). Chromium-free tanning methods are another option.
Chromium free leather processing or mandatory declaration
The BfR believes that leather goods that come into contact with skin should not, if possible, contain any chromium (VI). At the very least, the levels should be reduced as far as possible. At the present time, the analytical detection limit is approximately 3 mg per kg leather. The studies by the regulatory authorities and the standard for work gloves prove that this limit can be complied with by using the corresponding technologies.
On the other hand, mandatory declaration could help allergy sufferers to consciously avoid purchasing products containing chromium (VI).
 Federal Institut for Risk Assessment: Chromium (VI) in leather clothing and shoes problematic for allergy sufferers! 10/2007, 02.07.2007
02.07.2007: Research on exposure and toxicological/ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles
Nanotechnology: describes the manufacture, examination and use of structures, molecular materials, inner interfaces with at least one critical dimension below 100 nm.
Nanoparticles: are understood as being engineered granular particulates, tubes and fibres with a diameter <100 nm (including their agglomerates and aggregates) for at least one dimension which have been shown to have low solubility in biological systems. Based on knowledge acquired so far these particles are particularly toxicologically relevant.
It is expected that the importance of nanotechnology will continue to grow and that workers and consumers will be increasingly exposed to it.
According to present knowledge, the insoluble and poorly soluble nanoparticles are particularly toxicologically relevant.
As the exposure of humans and the environment as well as the toxicological and
ecotoxicological properties and risks have not yet been characterised, there is a general
need to conduct further studies and to close the gaps in knowledge through research and
Chemical legislation does not specify any obligation to test (e.g. toxicological studies) or assess widespread nanoparticles like for instance titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide, silicon dioxide or "carbon black" that involve a nanoscale modification to a high production volume existing substance with the same CAS Number
Nanoparticles as food additives
Up to now there has been no specific regulation for nanoparticles in the areas food, consumer goods or cosmetics. For instance, no particle sizes are stipulated in the purity criteria for the approved food additives silicon dioxide (E551) and titanium dioxide (E171).
Public acceptance of nanotechnology
In order to promote the acceptance of nanotechnology by the public, accompanying social
scientific research should be conducted and there should be transparent discussion of the
risks with all interested stakeholders in society (cf. for instance http://www.dialognanopartikel.
The Goal of the research
The main goal of this research strategy is to structure the research area, to develop the
measurement of particles (metrology), to record information on exposure and
toxicological/ecotoxicological effects, to promote the development of a sophisticated risk
related test and assessment strategy, safety and risk management
 Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin: Nanotechnology: Health and Environmental Risks of Nanoparticles - Research strategy -
02.07.2007: People who are allergic to birch pollen may react hypersensitively to soy products too 
People who are allergic to birch pollen react also to peanuts, hazelnuts, apples, strawberries, carrots, celery and pulses. Certain proteins in these foods are so similar in structure to the protein in birch pollen that triggers the allergy that the body manifests such cross allergy. According to Professor Dr. Dr. Andreas Hensel, President of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR).BfR stresses that such cross allergy with soy products are possible.
The trigger of the cross allergy to soy is a protein (the PR-10 stress protein Gly m 4), which is found in soybeans and is similar in structure to the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.
The activity of the soy protein Gly m 4 can be dampened through heating to high temperatures or the protein itself can be destroyed. Allergy sufferers can, therefore, eat most products with soy ingredients which were heated during processing without suffering any health disorders.
BfR does not believe that it makes sense for the packaging of soy products to carry additional warnings for allergy sufferers. Not all soy products contain the protein Gly m4 that triggers the allergy. At the present time, no official detection method is available. Furthermore, besides soy numerous other foods such as peanuts could trigger severe cross allergy in people with a birch pollen allergy. They include apples, hazelnuts, and celery. Warnings on soy products would not, therefore, protect people who are allergic to birch pollen from a cross allergy.
 Federal Institute for Risk Assessment: People who are allergic to birch pollen may react hypersensitively to soy products too. 09/2007, 28.06.2007
01.07.2007 Seed flours derived from Chardonnay grapes and black raspberries improving stability of fish oil. 
Fish oil is highly susceptible to oxidation, resulting in a fishy taste and smell. Aside of microencapsulation Marla Luther and colleagues 2007 suggest ethanol extracts of Chardonnary grape and black raspberry seed flours to suppress lipid oxidation and rancidity development of omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil.
The black raspberry seed flour extract also exhibited bacteriocidal activity against E. coli and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at a level of 165 μg seed flour equivalents/mL.
According to the authors, the flour of these seeds may become a natural preservative and antioxidant omega-3 fatty acids added to a variety of canned foods, bread, dairy products and confectioneries.
 Luther, Marla; Parry, John; Moore, Jeffrey; Meng, Jianghong; Zhang, Yifan; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli (Lucy): Inhibitory effect of Chardonnay and black raspberry seed extracts on lipid oxidation in fish oil and their radical scavenging and antimicrobial properties. Journal of Food Chemistry (Elsevier) Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.034
1.07.2007: Lactose intolerance  
Lactose intolerance is caused by a shortage of the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the cells that line the small intestine. Lactase breaks down milk sugar into two simpler forms of sugar called glucose and galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream. Lactose intolerance occurs in about 25% of people in Europe; 50-80% of people of Hispanic origin, people from south India, black people, and Ashkenazi Jews; and almost 100% of people in Asia and American Indians.Lactose intolerance is a problem caused by the digestive system.
Symptoms are often the same of lactose intolerace. Cow's milk is an allergic reaction triggered by the immune system.
Symptoms of lactose intolerance
Common symptoms, which range from mild to severe, include nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhea. Symptoms begin about 30 minutes to 2 hours after eating or drinking foods containing lactose. The severity of symptoms depends on many factors, including the amount of lactose a person can tolerate and a person’s age, ethnicity, and digestion rate.
There are sophisticated tests for the diagnosis of lactase malabsorption,like the Lactose Tolerance Test, the Hydrogen Breath Test and the Stool Acidity Test. However, the diagnosis can be made easily on the basis of clinical history. Improvement in symptoms after eliminating such foods and worsening when they are reintroduced confirms the diagnosis.
Classification of lactase deficiency and dietary measures
No treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase, but symptoms can be controlled through diet.
Primary lactase deficiency
Lactase concentration after birth and declines after weaning. In primary lactase deficiency lactase concentrations declines at the age of weaning. It is associated with a recessive inherited trait, different between Europeans and Africans.
Treatment: In primary lactase deficiency the development of symptoms depends on how much lactose needs to be ingested before the available lactase is saturated. Thus, most people with primary lactase deficiency can ingest up to 240 ml of milk (12 g of lactose) without developing symptoms.
It may help to divide daily milk intake into several small portions and to take it with other foods. Yoghurt, curds, and cheeses are better tolerated, because lactose is partially hydrolysed by bacteria during their preparation and gastric emptying is slower as these products have a thicker consistency.
People with lactose intolerance should be encouraged to gradually increase their intake of milk- this causes changes in the intestine that permit higher milk intake.
Milk-cereal mixtures delay the entry of lactose into the intestine, permitting better absorption. Since these are cheap and easily prepared at home, their use should be promoted.
Secondary lactase deficiency
It results from injury to the small bowel mucosal brush border secondary to viral or non-viral intestinal infection, common in developing countries. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause.
Cogenital lactase deficiency
It is characterized by minimal or absent lactase immediately after birth. It is a rare disorder.
Developmental lactase deficiency
It occurs in premature infants, because lactase levels do not increase until the third trimester of a woman’s pregnancy. The deficiecy, however, rapidly improves as the intestinal mucosa matures.
Lactase enzyme tablets
For those who react to very small amounts of lactose or have trouble limiting their intake of foods that contain it, the lactase enzyme is available without a prescription to help people digest foods that contain lactose. The tablets are taken with the first bite of dairy food. Lactase enzyme is also available as a liquid. Adding a few drops of the enzyme makes lactose more digestible for people with lactose intolerance.
Young children and infants with lactase deficiency should not consume lactose-containing formulas or foods until they are able to tolerate lactose digestion. Most older children and adults do not have to avoid lactose completely, but people differ in the amounts and types of foods they can handle.
Children with infective diarrhoea 
Short periods of lactose intolerance are common after episodes of infective diarrhoea and may prolong the diarrhoeal illness. a meta-analysis has shown that most children with acute diarrhoea can safely continue to receive breast or undiluted animal milk Giving milk rather than yoghurt during acute diarrhoea is associated with higher milk intake and better weight gain and does not increase diarrhoea. Milk-cereal mixtures given at frequent intervals (nearly 2 g/kg/day of lactose or 40 ml/kg/day of milk) were well tolerated by most children with persistent diarrhoea.
Non-responders will benefit from reducing lactose intake below their current threshold of tolerance, followed by long term steps directed at improving adaptation of the intestine.
Recent research shows that yogurt with active cultures may be a good source of calcium for many people with lactose intolerance. Even though yogurt is fairly high in lactose, the bacterial cultures used to make it produce some of the lactase enzyme required for proper digestion.
Daily Calcium intake
The Institute of Medicine released a report listing the requirements for daily calcium intake. How much calcium a person needs to maintain good health varies by age group. Recommendations from the report are shown in the following table. 
|Age group||Amount of calcium to consume|
|daily, in milligrams (mg)|
|0–6 months||400 mg|
|6–12 months||600 mg|
|1–5 years||800 mg|
|6–10 years||1.200 mg|
|11–24 years||1,200–1,500 mg|
|19–50 years||1,000 mg|
|51–70+ years||1,500 mg|
In addition, pregnant and nursing women need between 1,200 and 1,500 mg of calcium daily
Many non-dairy foods are high in calcium, including dark green vegetables such as broccoli, or fish with soft, edible bones, such as salmon and sardines.
Calcium and Lactose in Common Foods 
|Vegetables||Calcium Content||Lactose Content||Dairy Products||Calcium content||Lactose Content|
|Soymilk, fortified, 1 cup||200–300 mg||0||Yogurt, plain, low-fat, 1 cup||415 mg||5 g|
|Sardines, with edible bones, 3 oz.||270 mg||0||Milk, reduced fat, 1 cup||295 mg||11 g|
|Salmon, canned, with edible bones, 3 oz.||205 mg||0||Swiss cheese, 1 oz.||270 mg||1 g|
|Broccoli, raw, 1 cup||90 mg||0||Ice cream, 1/2 cup||85 mg||6 g|
|Orange, 1 medium||50 mg||0||Cottage cheese, 1/2 cup||75 mg||2-3 g|
|Pinto beans, 1/2 cup||40 mg||0|
|Tuna, canned, 3 oz.||10 mg||0|
|Lettuce greens, 1/2 cup,||10 mg||0|
Yoghurt with active cultures may be a good source of calcium for many people with lactose intolerance. Even though yoghurt is fairly high in lactose, the bacterial cultures used to make it produce some of the lactase enzyme required for proper digestion.
Clearly, many foods can provide the calcium and other nutrients the body needs, even when intake of milk and dairy products is limited. However, factors other than calcium and lactose content should be kept in mind when planning a diet. Some vegetables that are high in calcium (Swiss chard, spinach, and rhubarb, for example) are not listed in the chart because the body cannot use the calcium they contain because these foods also contain substances called oxalates, which stop calcium absorption.
Calcium is absorbed and used only when there is enough vitamin D in the body. A balanced diet should provide an adequate supply of vitamin D from sources such as eggs and liver. Sunlight also helps the body naturally absorb vitamin D, and with enough exposure to the sun, food sources may not be necessary.
Although milk and foods made from milk are the only natural sources of lactose, it is often added to prepared foods. People with very low tolerance for lactose should know about the many food products that may contain even small amounts of lactose, such as:
Bread and other baked goods, processed breakfast cereals, instant potatoes, soups, and breakfast drinks, margarine, lunch meats (other than kosher), salad dressings, candies and other snacks, mixes for pancakes, biscuits, and cookies, powdered meal-replacement supplements
Some products labeled non-dairy, such as powdered coffee creamer and whipped toppings, may actually include ingredients that are derived from milk and therefore contain lactose such as whey, curds, milk by-products, dry milk solids, and non-fat dry milk powder. They contain lactose.
 National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC): Lactose intolerance
 Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Aggarwal, Rakesh: Lactose intolerance is common and can be diagnosed clinically and treated with simple dietary measures.BMJ 2007;334:1331-1332 (30 June), doi:10.1136/bmj.39252.524375.80
 Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride
 Adapted from Manual of Clinical Dietetics. 6th ed. American Dietetic Association, 2000; and Soy Dairy Alternatives. Available at: www.soyfoods.org.